Is "9/11 Truth" Based Upon a False Theory?

by Jim Fetzer (with T. Mark Hightower)


Given my background in the history and the philosophy of science and as a professional scholar, I founded Scholars for 9/11 Truth for the purpose of promoting collaborative research on the events of 9/11 by creating a web site, issuing press releases, archiving old research and supporting new research, sponsoring conferences, announcing public presentations, and making efforts to reach out to the public with the results of our investigations. The most intense conflicts in relation to the 9/11 Truth movement, however, turn out to come from within and between research groups, which have all too often found themselves at odds and severely attacked and even denounced one another.

Based upon my experience, I can report with confidence that the three most controversial issues within the 9/11 Truth movement are these:

(1) the Pentagon attack, especially, whether a Boeing 757 hit the Pentagon, which I have addressed in “What didn’t happen at the Pentagon” and in “Inside Job: Seven Questions about 9/11”;

(2) the planes in New York, especially, whether video fakery was used there, which I have addressed in “New Proof of Video Fakery on 9/11” and “Inside Job: More Proof of 9/11 Duplicity”; and,

(3) the demolition of the Twin Towers, especially, how it was done, the dominant theory being that they were destroyed using nanothermite as the principal mechanism, which I address here.

Image and video hosting by TinyPicThese are questions that can be investigated using scientific reasoning to evaluate alternative hypotheses. The benefits from this appear to be considerable, since, if my efforts are successful, (a) we will have a better understanding of what happened, (b) there will be fewer, less intense conflicts between us, and (c) we will become more cohesive and effective in promoting our objectives and goals. A “9/11 Truth” movement, after all, has to be based on truth, where science is our most reliable method for distinguishing between what is true and what is false, where I can apply my background and the 35 years I spent offering courses in logic, critical thinking and scientific reasoning.

The evidence presented in those studies about (1) the Pentagon attack and (2) the planes in New York and (3) the demolition of the Twin Towers here not only falsifies the official account of 9/11 but also implicates the Department of Defense in the case of (1) and the national media in the case of (2) with its deceit and deception in perpetrating fraud on the American people. While I have no doubt that the Mossad was involved, it could not have been responsible for the “stand down” of the US Air Force on 9/11 nor for the failure of the Pentagon to take measures to protect itself from an aircraft, whose approach was known to Dick Cheney and to the pilot of a C-130, who was circling the building at the time. The Mossad is far more likely to have been deeply involved in (3) the destruction of the Twin Towers.

The Nanothermite Theory

While there are many points of agreement within the 9/11 Truth community, which include that the North Tower was hit first but “collapsed” second’; that the fires burned neither long enough nor hot enough for the steel to have weakened, much less melted; that collapse scenarios were not even physically possible; and that NIST has never been able to justify a “point of initiation”, much less present a serious collapse simulation, there has been ongoing controversy over how it was done, where the prevalent theory is that nanothermite was the principal ingredient. If any single event could be said to have inspired the 9/11 Truth community, it was the publication of an article in the Bentham Open Science journal:

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Bolstered in their belief by this article by Niels Harrit, Jeffrey Farrer, Steven Jones, Kevin Ryan, and others, “Active Thermitic Material Discovered in Dust from the 9/11 World Trade Center Catastrophe”, in The Open Chemical Physics Journal 2 (2009), pp. 7-31, the theory has become dominant in 9/11 research. And this has remained the case even though the Editor-in-Chief of the journal, Marie-Paule Pileni, who specializes in nano-materials research at the Université Pierre et Marie Curie in France, resigned her position in protest of its publication, which she regarded as very inappropriate.

The article itself, which was based upon studies of dust that was collected from the immediate vicinity of “Ground Zero”, maintains that nanothermite residue was found in the dust and suggests that this finding holds the key to understanding the means by which the Twin Towers were blown apart. It was done using “explosive nanothermite”. The article asserts, for example,

“The feature of ‘impulse management’ may be significant. It is possible that formulations may be chosen to have just sufficient percussive effect to achieve the desired fragmentation while minimizing the noise level” (page 26);

And concludes with the following (somewhat ambiguous) declaration:

“Based on these observations, we conclude that the red layer of the red/gray chips we have discovered in the WTC dust is active, unreacted thermitic material, incorporating nanotechnology, and is a highly energetic pyrotechnic or explosive material” (page 31);

. . . which has been widely construed to have established scientifically that nanothermite was found in the dust, that nanothermite is explosive, and that nanothermite was the crucial ingredient in bringing about the conversion of the Twin Towers into a few large pieces and millions of cubic yards of very fine dust, which appears to have been critical for the preservation of the bathtub, the shattering of which would have allowed Hudson River water to flood beneath Lower Manhattan, the subway and the PATH train tunnels, causing monumental damage to the most valuable real estate in the world, which the conspirators, it appears, wanted to preclude by employing a novel mode of demolition.

Enthusiastic Endorsements

The widespread acceptance of nanothermite as the crucial component of the demolition of the Twin Towers has become a matter of common knowledge within the 9/11 Truth community. But here are samples of the extent to which it has become embedded in reasoning about 9/11. On April 5, 2009, for example, Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth published “Exotic High Tech Explosives Positively Identified in World Trade Center Dust”, presenting its ringing endorsement of its findings:

“A ground-breaking scientific paper confirmed this week that red-gray flakes found throughout multiple samples of WTC dust are actually unexploded fragments of nanothermite, an exotic high-tech explosive.

“The samples were taken from far-separated locations in Manhattan, some as early as 10 minutes after the second tower (WTC 1) collapsed, ruling out any possible contamination from cleanup operations. . . .

“Ordinary thermite burns quickly and can melt through steel, but it is not explosive. Nanothermite, however, can be formulated as a high explosive. It is stable when wet and can be applied like paint.”

During an interview in RUSSIA TODAY (July 2009), Neils Harrit, the paper’s first author, offers observations that are rather more qualified by suggesting that, while thermite was “used for melting the steel beams”, he is certain that conventional explosives were also used:

“There is very solid evidence for that some thermite has been used for melting the steel beams. We should not, I do not know, we do not know if the thermite that we have found is the same thermite which has been used for melting the beams. It’s very very possible that different varieties was used and I personally am certain that conventional explosives were used too in abundance.” When asked what he meant by the phrase,“in abundance,” he said “tons, hundred tons, many many many tons.”

In his admirable “Left-Leaning Despisers of the 9/11 Truth Movement: Do You Really Believe in Miracles?”, GLOBAL RESEARCH (6 July 2010), David Ray Griffin, the dean of 9/11 research, expressed his emphatic support for nanothermite as a powerful explosive capable of exerting enormous force and ejecting large sections of steel hundreds of feet:

“NIST thereby admitted that debris had been thrown out horizontally from the North Tower at least 350 feet.84 NIST’s report also stated:

“When WTC 1 collapsed at 10:28:22 AM, . . . some fragments [of debris] were forcibly ejected and traveled distances up to hundreds of meters. Pieces of WTC 1 hit WTC 7, severing six columns on Floors 7 through 17 on the south face and one column on the west face near the southwest corner. The debris also caused structural damage between Floor 44 and the roof.85

“Debris that caused such extensive damage, including the severing of seven steel columns, had to be quite heavy. NIST seemed to be granting, therefore, that sections of steel columns had been hurled at least 650 feet (because “hundreds of meters” would mean at least 200 meters, which would be about 650 feet). Enormous force would be needed to eject large sections of steel that far out.

“What could have produced this force? According to NIST, as we saw earlier, there were only three causal factors in the collapse of the Twin Towers: the airplane impacts, the fires, and gravitational attraction. The airplane impacts had occurred 56 minutes (South Tower) and 102 minutes (North Tower) earlier, and gravitational attraction pulls things straight downward. Fire could, to be sure, produce horizontal ejections by causing jet fuel to explode, but the jet fuel had, NIST pointed out, burned up within “a few minutes.”86 Therefore, although NIST admitted that these horizontal ejections occurred, it suggested no energy source to explain them.

“High explosives, such as RDX or nanothermite, could explain these horizontal ejections. According to NIST, however, explosives did not contribute to the destruction of the Twin Towers. Those who accept NIST’s account must, therefore, regard these horizontal ejections as constituting yet another miracle.”

And there can be scant room for doubt that Griffin’s characterization has become the dominant view within the 9/11 Truth community, where it has assumed a standing akin to that of a religious dogma, where those who challenge that belief have been subject to severe reactions from within the community, including forms of banishment and blackballing, very much on the order of heretics in theological disputes of the past, many of whom were even burned at the stake.

The Split in Scholars

And I have been among them. When I founded Scholars for 9/11 Truth, I invited Steven Jones, a physicist from BYU, to serve as my co-chair, on the advice of David Ray Griffin, whom I invited first. I would later learn from David that, at that time, he had no confidence that a society could make a difference, which was an opinion he would later retract. In the months between founding the society in December of 2005 and the American Scholars Conference in Los Angeles in June of 2006, I had heard a lot about thermite, thermate, and nanothermite, but was skeptical that it could perform the feats of blowing massive assemblies of steel hundreds of yards and converting two 500,000 ton buildings into millions of cubic yards of very fine dust. On Saturday of the conference, I approached Steve in the lobby and asked him if he was confident that nanothermite could bring about these effects—and was not entirely persuaded when he assured me that, “Yes, it could!”

By the end of the year, I had become convinced that it was necessary to broaden the range of hypotheses that were under consideration as candidates to explain the destruction of the Twin Towers. None of us had any problems with WTC-7, which exhibited all the characteristics of a classic controlled demolition: the explosion began at the base, ran up the side of the building with a kink in the roof, where all the floors fell at the same time into the buildings foundation at the approximate rate of free fall and a stack of debris about 12% of its original height remained. The Twin Towers were different, where all of their floors remained stationary until they were “blown to kingdom come” (in the memorable phrase of Morgan Reynolds), where they were destroyed at the approximate rate of free fall, too, but where, as Fr. Frank Morales from St. Mark’s Episcopal Church observed during two interviews on a radio program I co-hosted with Kevin Barrett, “The Dynamic Duo”, both buildings, unlike WTC-7, were destroyed below ground level!

The differences between us were exacerbated when I interviewed Dr. Judy Wood, a former professor of mechanical engineering, who was promoting the alternative theory that directed energy weapons might have been used to destroy the buildings rather than thermite in any of its guises, which took place on November 11, 2006. What I liked the most about Judy’s work was that it offered a fresh perspective about how it could have been done, where she asked me to guess where a directed energy device could have been located and, when I offered WTC-7 as a guess, she corrected me and said, “In space!” I would bet that this interview caused more division in the 9/11 Truth community than any other event before or after. Judy began being attacked for advocating “space beams” and “death rays”, while I was castigated for supporting her. That I was SUPPORTING RESEARCH on her theory as opposed to ENDORSING IT was a subtlety that was lost on the crowd, where it has become part of the presumptive history of the 9/11 movement.

Critique of Steven Jones

Perhaps my strongest critique of Steve’s work occurred by accident. On May 17, 2007, my scheduled guest on “The Dynamic Duo”, Don Paul, was a no-show and I had to wing it for two hours. So for the first part of the show, I talked about my collaborative research on the death of Sen. Paul Wellstone and on the assassination of JFK. During the second part, however, I focused my attention on a new paper he had just published, “Why indeed did the World Trade Center buildings completely collapse?” A copy can be found on the Journal of 9/11 Studies 3 (2006), which I suppose is a close facsimile of the paper I discussed, although Steve has sometimes revised his work on-line without formal notice. In my critique, I pointed out that the title was wrong, since the buildings had not “collapsed” and that he was talking about the Twin Towers, but my more serious criticisms concerned his deeply flawed conception of the scientific method and what I regarded as inadequate support for his thermite/thermate/nanothermite theory, “On the Manipulation of the 9/11 Research Community”. Here are a few passages for the flavor:

“Don’t forget that eleven hundred bodies were never recovered. Eleven hundred bodies were never recovered. Those were bodies that were turned into very fine dust. Never recovered. That’s completely inconsistent with a “collapse”. Even involving explosive, you would expect to find body parts, even if they were detached from bodies. And you’d find lots of skulls and torsos and arms and legs, but here we’re talking eleven hundred bodies, no parts of which were recovered. This is stunning stuff. And it certainly implies that something was going on here far beyond the use of any merely conventional explosives.

“But what’s going on in the research community is an attempt to constrain research that would actually have the capacity potentially to explain what’s going on. By reaching beyond conventional weaponry in to the range of unconventional weaponry, such as lasers, masers, plasmoids, mini-nukes. I mean, who knows in advance of actually conducting an investigation that theories or hypotheses about the use of lasers or masers or mini-nukes are wrong? You can’t know that without investigation. And I’m going to suggest that a gigantic hoax is being perpetrated on the research community by the claim that [the] scientific method supports this very narrow definition of the use of thermite and thermate . . . .

“. . . where I have now taken a look at the latest paper of the leading proponent of that view, Steven Jones, and it doesn’t add up. I mean it may be impressive to those who are naïve about the nature of science and who are incapable of reading a paper that has the least degree of technical sophistication to it, but I’m going to suggest to you as we go through this paper that what we have here is a rather elaborate “snow job”, where the most important points made are actually concessions that the evidence he has found is merely consistent with the use of thermite or thermate but doesn’t prove it was produced by thermite or thermate, where, provided that there are multiple alternative possible explanations, he has not done the job. And I’m going to claim that he has not done the job because he has a commitment to a conception of scientific method that is hopelessly inadequate. Hopelessly inadequate. And that while he talks a lot about science, he is, alas, not practicing it.”

Jones’ maintains that the scientific method is a process of observation, formulating an hypothesis, performing tests and experiments, and then publishing the results in a peer-reviewed journal. That’s wrong, because science cannot simply begin with observation (since there is too much we could observe) and it cannot proceed by studying one hypothesis at a time. Science is a process of puzzlement (because something doesn’t fit into your background knowledge), speculation (by identifying the alternative hypotheses that might explain the data), adaptation (of hypotheses to data by calculating and comparing their likelihoods), and explanation (by accepting the hypothesis with the highest likelihood when the evidence has “settled down”, in the tentative and fallible fashion of science). His inadequate methodology derives from the failure to grasp that scientific research requires the comparison of alternative hypotheses and cannot focus only on one.

Image and video hosting by TinyPic“Houston, we have a problem!”

The most glaring empirical failure of the then-current version of his paper is that he finally gets around to talking about barium nitrate, and by the time you reach the final page, he has acknowledged that what he is talking about is not actually thermite but what he calls a “thermite analog”, which he does not actually define, and he admits that thermite, which he now calls “TH3”, is an analog of thermite that contains sulfur and barium nitrate and now he talks about thermite “as defined here”. It turns out this barium-nitrate-containing thermite is the military grade thermite that he has been using to demonstrate the effectiveness of thermite, illustrated by the use of a thermite grenade on the top of an engine block. But no barium nitrate has been found in the analysis of the chemical residue in the analysis of the dust by Steven Jones or by the US Geological Survey. So in this version, he has pulled a bait-and-switch. Looking at the current version on-line, however, barium nitrate is mentioned on page 19 but not at the end of his paper, which means that it has been revised since I critiqued it.

I am not the only one to have evaluated that version of his paper in caustic, negative terms, since a complementary critique comes from Stephen Phillips, “A Physicist Critiques Steven Jones’ New Paper” (May 21, 2007), where the present version is clearly not the same as the one he and I were addressing—a reflection of which may be that he actually includes my name in the acknowledgements! So let’s look at the conclusion of the current version and consider what he says there:

“Remarkably, the controlled-demolition hypothesis accounts for all the available data rather easily. The core columns (and corner perimeter columns) on floors damaged by the planes are cut near-simultaneously using radio-signaled explosives/incendiary-cutters. In this scenario, cutter-charges were set every two or three floors during routine “maintenance” of elevator shafts, etc., so that the cutting sequence could be matched in a controlling computer to begin at the level where the plane entered each Tower. Next cutter-charges were detonated from the top downward for the Towers, ejecting beams and material long distances horizontally as observed during the destruction. The “collapses” are thus near-symmetrical, complete, at near-free-fall speeds with accompanying “squibs”. Thermite analogs (whose end product is molten iron) including the explosive form, nano-thermite, may account for the molten metal which then pooled beneath the rubble piles as well as the sulfidation observed in steel from both the WTC 7 and Towers rubble piles (points 1 and 2 above). WTC 7 evidently proceeded in a more conventional fashion for controlled demolition, with collapse-initiating explosions starting on lower floors (rather than at high-floor levels as for the Towers).”

Notice that, like Architects & Engineers and David Ray Griffin, Steve is attributing vast powers to thermite in its “explosive” nanothermite form, including the capacity to eject steel beams and materials long distances horizontally “as observed during the destruction”. He appeals to “thermite analogs” whose end product is molten iron—“including the explosive form, nanothermite”—may account for the molten metal that pooled beneath the rubble piles, where WTC-7, he acknowledges, “evidently proceeded in a more conventional fashion for controlled demolition”, beginning on the lower floors rather than from the top. This is well and good and moves in the right direction. But can even these claims for nanothermite be sustained? It appears that they cannot.

Nanothermite: A Feeble Explosive

I has been my great pleasure over the past twelve months or more to participate in a research group focusing on the properties of thermite in all its original, thermate and nanothemite forms. We were aided and abetted in this process by contributions from Daniel Fairchild, a Vietnam veteran experienced in dealing with explosives, who was my guest on “The Real Deal” on

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, an interview that stimulated our thinking about how explosives work and how they might have been employed on 9/11. While some of his numbers struck us as faulty, Dan’s work motivated T. Mark Hightower, an engineer who has worked in the chemical industry and the space program—including with NASA for 21 years—to undertake a search of the open technical literature on nanothermite to determine its explosive potential in comparison to other explosives.

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What Mark discovered was surprising, especially given the extent to which leading figures of the 9/11 Truth movement have promoted it. The highest degree of explosiveness for iron oxide/aluminum nanothermite—the chemical form claimed to have been involved in WTC destruction—that Mark could find documented in the technical literature has a detonation velocity of only 895 m/s (or meters per second). Since TNT, the universal standard for comparison, has a detonation velocity of 6,900 m/s, the explosive potential of thermite in its most potent form of nanothermite is acutely disappointing. When we divide the velocity of nanothermite by that for TNT (895/6,900), it turns out nanothermite is not even 13% as powerful as TNT. (See “Table of Explosive Velocities” from Wikipedia.)

As Mark has explained in a blog, “Has nanothermite been oversold to the 9/11 Truth community?”, and an interview on “The Real Deal”

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, 895 m/s is obviously too low of a value to account for the explosive effects observed in the catastrophic destruction of the WTC Twin Towers, including turning concrete and other materials into dust or separating and propelling steel members and other materials outward. Comparisons with the detonation velocities of conventional high explosives, such as 8,750 m/s for RDX or 9,100 m/x for HMX (not to mention 8,040 m/s for C-4 and 8,400 m/s for PETN), it is clear that nanothermite is not even in the same ballpark. While thermite in one or another of its guises as a rapid incendiary could have been used to sever or pre-weaken steel members, this low velocity melting process is a totally different mechanism for the cutting of steel than the shock wave method that requires detonation velocities of at least 3,200 m/s for concrete and 6,100 m/s for steel.

With respect to the demolition of the Twin Towers and blowing them to bits, low-explosive nanothermite, which does exist, can be eliminated as an hypothesis because it is ineffective. High-explosive nanothermite as an alternative can be eliminated because it simply does not exist. Mark therefore concludes that the phrase, “explosive nanothermite”, when used to describe the causal mechanism for demolishing the Twin Towers is either seriously misleading under a charitable interpretation and at worst deliberately deceptive under an uncharitable one. Either way, conventional or unconventional explosives would have had to be combined with thermite, even in its nanothermite form. And if such a blend had been employed, the nanothermite would function more as an additive to high explosives rather than as the main ingredient itself.

The Nanothermite Challenge

On May 1, 2011, Hightower published, “The Nanothermite Challenge”, as part of a longer study, “Has nanothermite been oversold to the 9/11 Truth community?”. The challenge comes to this:

“Find and document peer-reviewed scientific research [publications] that demonstrate that a gas-generating nanothermite (GGNT) based upon iron (III) oxide (Fe2O3) and aluminum (Al), where the gas-generating chemical added to the nanothermite is not itself a high explosive, can be made to be a high explosive with at least a detonation velocity of 2000 m/s. The author of this paper will donate [to AE911Truth] $100 for every 1000 m/s of detonation velocity that can be documented, the donation not to exceed $1,000.”

The deadline date of June 20, 2011 passed with not even one entry to this contest. Interestingly, Kevin Ryan posted an article at 911blogger that very day entitled “The explosive nature of nanothermite”. In this article, Ryan admits that they know very little about the role that nanothermite played in 9/11.

“Although we know that nanothermite has been found in the WTC dust, we do not know what purpose it served in the deceptive demolition of the WTC buildings. It could be that the nanothermite was used simply to drive fires in the impact zones and elevator areas – fires which would otherwise have gone out too early or not been present at all – and thereby create the deception that jet fuel-induced fires could wreak the havoc seen. Nanothermite might also have been used to produce the explosions necessary to destroy the structural integrity of the buildings.”

In Ryan’s paper he cites (what he claims to be) “ten references to the fact that nanothermites can be made to be explosive.” During my interview with Mark Hightower of

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, on “The Real Deal”, however, Mark refuted every one of Ryan’s ten references. Let me document just one especially interesting example of those refutations here. Ryan’s reference 4 states,

“A high explosive creates a shockwave that always travels at high, supersonic velocity from the point of origin. This paper describes how – ‘the reaction of the low density nanothermite composite leads to a fast propagating combustion, generating shock waves with Mach numbers up to 3.'”

All you need to do is go to the title of this paper to see that it is not relevant to the nanothermite hypothesis advanced by Jones, Ryan, Griffin and Harrit, among others, because it is for the wrong chemical form of thermite. The Twin Towers destruction allegedly involved the use of iron oxide/aluminum nanothermite, but in this paper, “Generation of fast propagating combustion and shock waves with copper oxide/aluminum nanothermite composities”, Applied Physics Letters (2007), we have copper oxide/aluminum nanothermite. Although not the main thrust of the paper, it gives a qualified reference to iron oxide/aluminum nanothermite research. It says,

“Recently, we reported that higher combustion wave speeds were achieved for the composites of ordered porous Fe2O3 oxidizer and Al nanoparticles (5) as compared with the one containing porous oxidizer with no ordering of the pores and Al nanoparticles.”

Unfortunately no velocities are given, so it was necessary to go to the reference (5) cited in this paper to find more data, which Mark has done. The information for the reference (5) paper is as follows: Mehendale, Bhushan , Shende, Rajesh , Subramanian, Senthil , Gangopadhyay, Shubhra , Redner, Paul , Kapoor, Deepak and Nicolich, Steven(2006) ‘Nanoenergetic Composite of Mesoporous Iron Oxide and Aluminum Nanoparticles’, Journal of Energetic Materials, 24: 4, 341 — 360

On page 357, there is a graph, where the highest velocities (referred to as “burn rates” on the graph) are reported for the specified iron oxide/aluminum nanothermites. Those velocities are all less than 300 m/s, which is even less than the 895 m/s that Mark Hightower has established for iron/oxide aluminum nanothermite. It is safe to say that nothing revealed by Kevin Ryan provides an adequate response to “the nanothermite challenge”.

Replies from Researchers

In retrospect, it should have been obvious that nanothermite could not live up to its capabilities as they have been advanced by Steven Jones, Kevin Ryan, and others, who regard themselves as the custodians and only true practitioners of the scientific method in 9/11 research. Thus, Denis Spitzer et al., “Energetic nano-materials: Opportunities for enhanced performances”, Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids (2010), where, given the crucial role of the rapid expansion of gases to perform work by explosives, states, “Gas generating nano-thermites: Thermites are energetic materials, which do not release gaseous species when they decompose. However, explosives can be blended in thermites to give them blasting properties”, which implies that, unless supplemented with explosives, nanothermites are not explosive.

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In his efforts to inform prominent researchers about his discoveries, Mark wrote to Steven Jones, Richard Gage, and others. Dwain Deets, the former Chief of Research Engineering and Director for Aeronautical Projects at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, wrote to Mark and told him that he had listened to our interview on “The Real Deal” and said: “Excellent interview. A step toward trimming back claims that overshoot the evidence.” He also sent a diagram illustrating certain detonation velocities as well as the sonic (speed of sound) velocities in various materials. Thus, for a high explosive to significantly fragment a material, its detonation velocity has to be greater than the speed of sound in that material, which requires a detonation velocity of at least 3,200 m/s to fragment concrete and 6,100 m/s to fragment steel–far beyond 895 m/s for nanothermite.

On July 7, 2011, Hightower received emails from both David Ray Griffin and Richard Gage. Gage wrote back that “it [nanothermite] should not be called a ‘high’ explosive”. Griffin made a similar suggestion and, in reply, Mark observed that calling it simply “an explosive” would convey to most members of the public that it is “a high explosive” or, given it’s invocation by the “hard evidence” crowd, at least, has the ability to disintegrate concrete and even steel. Since that is the impression that has been indelibly implanted in the consciousness of the public, within and without the 9/11 Truth movement, until that claim is corrected, the 9/11 Truth movement will be based upon a provably false theory.

Griffin himself, of course, is not a scientist and is relying upon the work of Jones, Ryan, and others. But when he wrote back, “We are happy with our formulation, that it can be tailored to work as an incendiary or [as] an explosive. We cannot be responsible for the fact that many people may equate ‘explosive’ with ‘high explosive'”, his answer raised a number of rather disturbing questions about the ethical implications of allowing these enormously misleading impressions to linger:

(1) Will Architects & Engineers for 9/11 Truth inform the public that it has misrepresented the potential for “explosive nanothermite”?; and,

(2) If nanothermite only exists as a low explosive, that it cannot “hold the key” to the destruction of the Twin Towers, as has been claimed?; and,

(3) Will A&E admit that nanothermite cannot possibly be the “smoking gun” of 9/11 research, when the hard evidence contradicts that claim?

The 9/11 Truth Dilemma

Once again, as in the case of the Pentagon crash site and the question of “planes/no planes”, serious students of 9/11 are placed in a dilemma. If they are committed to truth, as the name “9/11 Truth” implies, then they have to confront the fact that claims advanced on behalf the nanothermite hypothesis—that the scientific key to understanding the demolition of the Twin Towers is the use of the nano-version of thermite—cannot be sustained. When the detonation velocity of nanothermite is only 895 m/s, while TNT has a detonation velocity of 6,900 m/s, the explosive potential of thermite—even in its most potent form as nanothermite—is more than acutely disappointing. When it turns out nanothermite is not even 13% as powerful as TNT, the very idea that nanothermite should “hold the scientific key to understanding what happened to the Twin Towers” is simply absurd.

But shouldn’t the leaders of a self-proclaimed 9/11 “scientific research” group have sorted this out before they proclaimed that nanothermite was “the key”? As Mark has observed in his study, Steve Jones made a mistake early in his 9/11 research career by classifying nanothermite as an explosive in the same category with RDX, HMX, and others, whose detonation velocities are overwhelmingly greater. Alas, “The 9/11 truth movement has never recovered from from this error, for to this day nearly everyone in the 9/11 movement refers to ‘explosive nanothermite’, as even this clever cover for a fictitious ‘For Dummies’ book [above] illustrates.” And shouldn’t those who were promoting it to the community have discovered their blunder and taken steps to correct the false impression that they were thereby conveying?

My critique of Steve Jones’ research, “On the manipulation of the 9/11 Truth Community”, in which I observed, for example, that “the most important points [he has] made are actually concessions that the evidence he has found is merely consistent with the use of thermite or thermate but doesn’t prove it was produced by thermite or thermate, where, provided that there are multiple alternative possible explanations, he has not done the job. And I’m going to claim that he has not done the job because he has a commitment to a conception of scientific method that is hopelessly inadequate. . . . And that while he talks a lot about science, he is, alas, not practicing it”, was presented on the air on on May 17, 2007. It was even published on 911blogger, but met with derision and hostility, where the comments were extremely revealing.

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And there were other signs of trouble brewing. The Rock Creek Free Press (May 2009), for example, published a piece about nanothermite, which offered a more reasonable assessment of its explosive capabilities, explaining that even if it has the potential to be a low grade explosive, its use as a high explosive—which might be capable of doing the work required to bring about (at least a major part of) the destruction of the Twin Towers—would require that it be combined with a high explosive. Surely this front-page article, which featured photos of Neils Harrit, Jeffrey Farrer, Kevin Ryan, and Steve Jones, ought to have caught the attention of the leaders of the “hard-evidence” research group.

Even now, after the publication of “Has nanothermite been oversold to the 9/11 Truth community?”, some of its most important advocates, such as Steven Jones, Kevin Ryan, and Neils Harrit, remain its obdurate supporters. There are signs that others may be more appreciative of the significance of these considerations, where recent handouts from Architechts & Engineers for 9/11 Truth advance the slightly more modest claim, “WTC dust samples contain chips of highly energetic nano-thermite composite materials – uniformly nano-sized, proportioned in an organic gas-generating (explosive) matrix”, which appears to be the fallback position: nanothermite may not be explosive, but it can be combined with explosives to make it explosive. The same, alas, can also be said of toothpaste. At some point, therefore, these “leaders” of the 9/11 Truth movement have to concede that a mistake was made and that they have misled the movement: nanothermite cannot possibly hold the key to understanding the demolition of the Twin Towers on 9/11.

James H. Fetzer is a former Marine Corps officer, the founder of Scholars for 9/11 Truth, and a columnist for VT.

T. Mark Hightower has worked as an engineer for nearly 30 years, initially in the chemical industry, then in the space program for NASA, and currently in the environmental field, also with NASA. He is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) and the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA). His research on 9/11 is an exercise of his Constitutional rights as a private citizen and in no way represents his employer or any of the professional societies of which he is a member.

Indian American wants ayurveda practitioners in US licensed

Hindustan Times (New Delhi, India) April 7, 2006 New York, April 7 — An Indian American practitioner of ayurveda wants those who practice this ancient Indian medical system to get licences in the US.

Lakshmi C. Mishra, director of the Ayurvedic Health Care Center in Rockville, Maryland, has proposed to Maryland’s Board of Physicians to introduce an official licensing programme, according to the Indus Business Journal (IBJ).

The ayurveda system of medicine is based on the theory of balance between the body, the soul and the mind. Though it is believed that this system is as old as humanity, it was recorded down in texts between 4000 BC and 6000 BC.

Mishra wants Maryland to introduce a training system similar to the one that he had undergone in India.

He has proposed that the system should include four and a half years of education followed by a year of internship in a hospital. This is similar to the programme followed by the 200-odd ayurveda medical colleges in India. go to website maryland board of physicians

“The home of ayurveda is India, and that’s where it developed for the last thousands of years. So I’m taking that as the model,” he told IBJ.

As of now, there is no law in the US which requires practitioners of ayurveda to have a licence.

Explaining that ayurvedic medicine considers the patient more important than the disease, he said that those who practice this system without proper training might end up making wrong diagnoses and prescribing wrong treatments, making the patient sicker and delaying correct treatment.

Mishra has also expressed concern over the prescription of ayurvedic drugs by people who are not formally trained. Ayurvedic drugs use animal, mineral and vegetable-based products. web site maryland board of physicians

Pointing out that a chiropractor in the US needs to have at least 3,000 hours of training before starting to practise and even a masseur needs 500 hours, he said there was no such law for ayurveda. The Indian programme includes 2,900 hours of education and 700 hours of lab work.

There are around 20-odd ayurveda training institutes in the US, most of which offer short-term courses.

Karen Wuff, a member of the Maryland Board of Physicians, was quoted in the report as saying that the board was aware of the issue of licensing ayurveda practitioners.

However, this was a new area and legislation could take years.

Mishra is planning to contact the Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Maryland and the Maryland Insurance Administration over this issue. The American Association of Physicians of Indian Origin (AAPI) is backing him.

Published by HT Syndication with permission from Indo-Asian News Service.

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156 Comments for “Is "9/11 Truth" Based Upon a False Theory?”

  1. Hello there, simply turned into aware of your blog thru Google, and found that it is really informative. I?m gonna watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you continue this in future. A lot of other folks will be benefited from your writing. Cheers!

  2. Brownie points for writing on this topic. There isn’t a lot of content written about it (not particularly helpful anyway). It is positive to see it receiving a little bit more coverage. Thanks again!

  3. Thank you, Mr Fetzer, for forwarding these questions and publishing the replies by Niels Harrit. My replies to him follow, marked with “>>”


    Questions for Fetzer, Hightower and Nelson_2008:
    1. Is there any actual evidence (apart from supposition) that the ‘red/grey chips’ analyzed by Jones originated from the WTC towers?

    Harrit: The samples originated from locations in different directions from WTC. The dust fell from the sky. One sample was collected 20 min after the collapse of the North Tower. It you don’t believe it came from WTC, why do you bother to discuss the data at all?

    >> This question goes to the issue of proving causality in a theoretical criminal trial of the case and also whether the samples could have been tainted with materials not arising from the building collapse, per se. Obviously both matters of no interest to Harrit.

    2. Why would a thermite be presented in the form of ‘chips’, if packing density is a factor in its burn rate?

    Harrit: The thermite is not ”presented”. The chips were found as remains of something – we don’t know what.

    >> Unless Harrit is now claiming that the ‘chips’ were actually synthesized during the deflagration/explosion [in his own words, a joke of science], then they have to be unreacted portions of the original material he claims is a thermite. But he obviously cannot think of any counter-intuitive reason why a thermite would be manufactured in the form of ‘chips’, so unskillfully tries to evade this question.

    3. Why would a thermite, which relies on the close proximity of reactive components in a homogeneous mixture, consist of two distinctly colored material layers which are not mixed at all?

    Harrit: Only the red layer shows the thermite reaction. Apparently, the reactive components are close enough. You are addressing the vey core of nanotehnology when you call a nanocomposite ”homogeneous”. I would say it is not. Conventional thermite is certainly not.

    >> Note how he does NOT say “the red layer *is* a thermite”, and admits later [Q10] that a thermitic reaction was in fact not proven, nor even tested for. Therefore, his conclusions are far from apparent. Harrit also reveals he scarcely understands how thermites work by saying “Conventional thermite is certainly not homogeneous” ~ what else would you call two finely ground and well-mixed metal powders?
    To quote from ~ “It is important to mix the [powdered] thermite ingredients thoroughly in order to create a homogeneous mixture. Unless the thermite is sufficiently mixed, it may be difficult to ignite or sustain the thermite reaction.” Another characteristic feature of thermite is that, once the reaction starts, it is practically impossible to prevent it completing throughout the whole contiguous mass.

    4. Why does Jones not explain of what the grey layer in his ‘chips’ consists?

    Harrit: We do. It is purely Fe2O3. Did you read the paper? Look e.g at Fig. 6 and in the text.

    >> OK. And yes, I did slog through your tiresome tripe, though it’s some time ago.

    5. Why does Jones not explain of what the ‘organic material’ in his ‘chips’ consists?

    Harrit: Because we don’t know.

    >> This excuse is pretty rich, coming from an alleged scientist ~ Translation: “We did not test this material because we did not wish to know the answer, suspecting that any accurate knowledge would only lessen the scope for later airy speculation on the matter and thus undermine our pre-determined conclusions, which had to be tortured out of the data.”

    6. How can an exothermic burn, once initiated in and propagating through a solid thermite material, be stopped so as to leave uniform ‘chips’ of same lying around intact and unreacted for collection by Manhattan Residents?

    Harrit: No incendiary or explosive reactions are complete. We do speculate on this in the paper.

    >> Another non-answer, as this is a practical impossibility. Bits of unreacted explosive are not just left lying around after a solid chunk of it is detonated, due to the fact that the shock-wave travels faster than the material could be ejected. Otherwise, no bomb would ever explode, just fly into bits and then stop.

    7. And if #6 were possible, how could all the ‘chips’ NOT be covered with reaction products from the burn?

    Harrit: The paper describes mainly the unreacted chips and their reaction in the lab. There are many reacted and some semi-reacted chips in the dust. But considering the enourmous quantities of iron spheres formed, the reacted/unreacted chips can only represent a very small quantity of of the bulk thermitic material in the buildings.

    >> If the plentiful unreacted ‘chips’ [estimated at 100 tons] represent a very small proportion of the thermite needed [e.g. 0.1%] to demolish the buildings, this means there must have been literally >=10,000 tons of this invisible stuff packed in there, which is obviously nonsense. This further begs the question as to why Harrit claims at least 100 tons of ordinary HE was also used, and, if it was, why would any demolitioneer bother lugging in all this bulky thermite to begin with? More nonsense, but never mind, on with the so-called science!

    8. Why would conspiratorial ‘controlled demolitioneers’ pick such a severely inefficient material which leaves an estimated 100 tons of unreacted explosive agent lying around?

    Harrit: The efficiency was demonstrated by the succesful demolitions. As to the clues left behind, the perpetrators could be dumb or careless. Or they were relying on people like Jim Fetzer to cover them up (which was not too clever either).

    >> The Harrit’s Hoop of circular logic is here completed ~ he has demonstrated neither thermite nor controlled demolition, but maintains his fictional thermite must have been very efficient, since the buildings fell down. This is not science, just religious/political dogma masquerading as such. Then, as the cherry atop this delusion pie, he indicates the ‘perpetrators’ probably must have relied on Jim Fetzer to sieve out 100 tons of red primer paint flakes (a.k.a. ‘nanothermite’) from the WTC dust before anyone could notice him covering their tracks. This demonstrates the non plus ultra of ludicrous fantasies Harrit is willing to engage in to avoid dealing with the gaping deficiencies of his paper.

    9. Is there evidence that red or grey paint was used in WTC towers?

    Harrit: Not grey, to my knowledge. But red paint was used in overly abundance. All the structural steel was covered with a primer paint containing iron oxide (and zink chromate, which is lemon yellow, giving the beams an orange tinge). See:

    >> ‘The sad case of Niels Harrit’ – ~ see post #536 for reasoned proof that ‘nanothermite chips’ = Tenemec red primer paint coating from the WTC structural steel.

    10. Why did Jones not heat the ‘chips’ to ignition point in the absence of atmospheric oxygen (inert gas or vacuum) to prove the material can actually sustain a thermitic reaction?

    Harrit: Because the only published DSC of nanothermite was done in air and because WTC was not demolished under argon.

    >> Amazing! Very few events in the natural world happen ‘under argon’, Harrit, but not until you came along did that ever prevent scientists from using robust methodology to demonstrate their conclusions are sound. The only honest answer here must be that no thermitic reaction was demonstrated because none could be, given that red paint-flakes are not actually any kind of thermite.

    11. Why did Jones not demonstrate the absence/existence of thermite reaction products before/after burning his ‘chips’?

    Harrit: Did the questioner ever read the paper? Am I wasting my time here?

    >> No, you are making great progress in exposing yourself as a science-faker ~ keep it up!

    12. Why has no reputable and qualified scientist ever replicated the ‘explosive’ findings of Jones et al?

    Harrit: Ask them – if you can find anyone not depending on governmental funding.

    >> Harrit here attempts to divert from the fact that he and Jones will not share their WTC dust/chips samples with anyone whom they suspect may not sing from their hymn-sheet to arrive at a confirmatory conclusion.

    13. Which ‘peers’ reviewed Jones et al paper prior to publication, how are they qualified and who selected them?

    Harrit: Your question should be addressed to the management of the journal.
    Apparently, the questioner has a distorted picture of the review process. Almost all scientific journals require that you suggest referees together with your submission. Like, in American Chemical Society journals you simply cannot activte the ”submit button” unless you have provided all personal details of at least five (or seven) potential referees. (For an example of such an ACS paper, you may be interested in seeing the galley proof of my latest article (in print) here:

    PS: Five of the other authors are my previous students.)

    Both parties, the journal and the authors, are interested in a qualified review. Far too often, the referee simply does not understand the paper or is reading it sloppily. So the authors put on the list researchers who they know are qualified and thorough. The selection can be quite limited when we are dealing with highly specialized, ground-breaking research as in the example given. Sometimes, the authers can guess the identity of the referee from his/her preference or points of criticism. Sometimes, the referee reveals him/herself to the authors when he/she becomes overly interested and want to engage in a more thorough discussion. This is a good thing, as it always leads to a better publication and saves a lot of work for the editorial staff.

    >> Much verbiage translated: Harrit’s paper was never ‘peer-reviewed’, Bentham Open is a ‘pay-to-publish’ vanity journal with no questions asked, except “Has the $800 check cleared yet?, whose figurehead ‘editors’ resign on the first email challenge to their methods.

    Here’s the translation of the original danish article about Dr. Pilenis bombshell resignation:


    Editor in chief resigns after controversial article on 9/11
    28 April 2009 – From ( Danish science news service)

    An article on explosives in the World Trace Center was published in a scientific journal without the editor in chief knowing about it. Now she is resigning, she tells ([science.denmark])
    By Thomas Hoffman (

    It created a great attention, surprise and suspicion when the Open Chemical Physics Journal in April published a scientific article on remains of nanothermite which were found in great amounts in the dust from the WTC.

    One those most surprised is apparently the editor in chief of the journal. Professor Marie-Paule Pileni first heard about the article when wrote to her to ask for her professional assessment of the article’s content. The e-mail got her to immediately close the door to the journal.

    “I resign as the editor in chief”, was the abrupt answer in an email to


    A telephone call reveals that editor in chief Marie-Paule Pileni had never been informed that the article was going to be published in The Open Chemical Physics Journal, which is published by the journal giant Bentham Science Publishers.

    “They have printed the article without my permission, so when you wrote to me, I did not know that the article had appeared. I cannot accept this, and therefore I have written to Bentham that I resign from all activities with them”, explains Marie Paule Pileni, who is professor with a specialty in nanomaterials at the renowned Universite Pierre et Marie Curie in France.

    She feels not only stabbed in the back, but is puzzled that the article on dust analysis following the terror attack on the U.S. on 11 September 2001 could at all have found its way to the Open Chemical Physics Journal.

    “I cannot accept that this topic is published in my journal. The article has nothing to do with physical chemistry or chemical physics, and I could well believe that there is a political viewpoint behind its publication. If anyone had asked me, I would say that the article should never have been published in this journal. Period.” concludes the former editor in chief.


    The editor-in-chief’s dramatic departure gives critics additional reason to doubt the article’s conclusions, but Marie-Paule Pileni points out that because the topic lies outside her field of expertise, she cannot judge whether the article in itself is good or bad.

    Nevertheless, the publication gets her to give the Open Chemical Physics Journal failing grades.

    “I was in fact in doubt about them before, because I had on several occasions asked about information about the journal without having heard from them. It does not appear on the list of international journals, and that is a bad sign. Now I can see that it is because it is a bad journal”, says Marie-Paule Pileni and continues:

    “There are no references to the Open Chemical Physics Journal in other articles. I have two colleagues who contributed to publishing an article which was not cited anyplace either. If no one reads it, it is a bad journal, and there is no use for it”, is the harsh verdict.

    The professor informs us that a few years ago she was invited to be editor in chief of a journal which would open new possibilities for new researchers and because she supports the idea of open access journals where the articles are accessible to everyone, she said, “Yes, thank you.”

    “It is important to allow people to try and gain success, but one should not be allowed to do everything, and all this is certainly a bunch of nonsense. I try to be a serious researcher, and I will not have my name connected with this kind of thing,” concludes Marie-Paule Pileni.


    The editor-in-chief’s decision is viewed as regrettable by the Danish chemist Niels Harrit, who is one of the authors to the controversial article on nanothermite in the dust from the WTC.

    “It surprises me, of course, and it is regrettable, if it discredits our work. But her departure doesn’t change our conclusions, for it is a purely personnel related thing she is angry about. I still believe that we have carried out chemical physics, and if there is something wrong with our study, she is welcome to criticize us for it,” says Niels Harrit, Associate Professor at the Institute of Chemistry at the University of Copenhagen.

    It is Niels Harrit’s coauthor Steven Jones who was in charge of contact to Bentham, and therefore the Danish researcher is presently not aware which responsible assistant editor the group has been communicating with.

    However, he does know the names of the two researchers –so-called referees—who have reviewed the article, but he will not give their names because they ‘are in principle anonymous’.


    Niels Harrit’s superior at the University of Copenhagen, Nils O. Andersen has himself participated in the pool of researchers who could be selected as editor, on an article which should be published in The Open Chemical Physics Journal. He has recently chosen to resign from the journals Editorial Advisory Board.

    He informs that the decision has nothing to do with Niels Harrit’s article, and that he otherwise did not achieve having any experiences with the journals, so that he cannot shed further light on how the journal operates.

    “Open access is an exciting development, and as a principle the idea should be tried out for there is no reason for the commercial publishers to earn money from our work. But professionally, the journal lay at the margin of my expertise, and as I had said No to be editor of two articles, I decided that I would not use my time on anything else.”, explains Nils O. Andersen, dean of the faculty of Natural Sciences and editor of the European Physical Journal D.

    It has not yet been possible to get any comment from Bentham Science Publishers.


    Conclusion: If the editor-in-chief cannot believe this paper was published in her journal behind her back, and resigns in protest, it’s a pretty safe bet that ‘abnormal channels’ were used to avoid any respectable peer review process.
    i.e., the paper was never peer reviewed at all. Which is obvious, as given its innumerable defects, no decent scientific journal would publish such stuff.

    Niels Harrit, Steven Jones et al are exposed as faux-scientific fraudsters.

    • “To quote from ~ “It is important to mix the [powdered] thermite ingredients thoroughly in order to create a homogeneous mixture.”

      I had to go to that website simply because of the name “amazingrust”. “Rust,” being the operative word. Low and behold here’s what I found, more glaring admission than I thought I would find. there was even a picture of powdered rust. And I quote from that page: “Iron(III) Oxide is a reddish-brown powder (left), commonly known as “rust” is mixed with Aluminum Powder (center) to make thermite (right).”

      I wonder if the iron particulate matter that was abundant in the 9/11 dust was from rusting steel beams. Perhaps not even from the outset, but got that way similar to the “toasted” cars. It would be expected to find rust (Fe2O3) in the dust and aluminum since the exterior sheathing was aluminum.

  4. I’m not going to do it publicly. I will share e-mails with any one who wants them. Just ask.

    • Jim,

      I doubt that happens, however, as stated above, it’s also about preventing premature ignition due to static discharges. That’s another reason this material is used, to eliminate this possibility, minimize the use of conductive materials. The material described above looks similar to network cable, and remember, were not talking about conventional applications. You can not build the machine without the nuts and bolts, especially when some are specialized, and where answers are discovered.

      that’s all.

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