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The Four Horsemen of Banking

By Dean Henderson

 

If you want to know where the true power center of the world lies, follow the money – cui bono.  According to Global Finance magazine, as of 2010 the world’s five biggest banks are all based in Rothschild fiefdoms UK and France.  They are the French BNP ($3 trillion in assets), Royal Bank of Scotland ($2.7 trillion), the UK-based HSBC Holdings ($2.4 trillion), the French Credit Agricole ($2.2 trillion) and the British Barclays($2.2 trillion).

In the US, a combination of deregulation and merger-mania has left four mega-banks ruling the financial roost.  According to Global Finance, as of 2010 they are Bank of America ($2.2 trillion), JP Morgan Chase ($2 trillion), Citigroup ($1.9 trillion) and Wells Fargo ($1.25 trillion).  I have dubbed them the Four Horsemen of US banking. 

Consolidating the US Money Power

The September 2000 marriage which created JP Morgan Chase was the grandest merger in a frenzy of bank consolidation that took place throughout the 1990’s.  Merger mania was fed by a massive deregulation of the banking industry including revocation of the Glass Steagal Act of 1933, which was enacted after the Great Depression to curb the banking monopolies which had caused the 1929 stock market crash and precipitated the Great Depression.

In July 1929 Goldman Sachs launched two investment trusts called Shenandoah and Blue Ridge.  Through August and September they touted these trusts to the public, selling hundreds of millions of dollars worth of shares through the Goldman Sachs Trading Corporation at $104/share.  Goldman Sachs insiders were bailing out of the stock market.  By the fall of 1934 the trust shares were worth $1.75 each.  One director at both Shenandoah and Blue Ridge was Sullivan & Cromwell lawyer John Foster Dulles. [1]

John Merrill, founder of Merrill Lynch, exited the stock market in 1928, as did insiders at Lehman Brothers.  Chase Manhattan Chairman Alfred Wiggin took his “hunch” to the next level, forming Shermar Corporation in 1929 to short the stock of his own company.  Following the Crash of 1929, Citibank President Charles Mitchell was jailed for tax evasion. [2]

In February 1995 President Bill Clinton announced plans to wipe out both Glass Steagal and the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956- which barred banks from owning insurance companies and other financial entities. That day the old opium and slave trader Barings went belly up after one of its Singapore-based traders named Nicholas Gleason got caught on the wrong side of billions of dollars in derivative currency trades. [3]

The warning went unheeded.  In 1991 US taxpayers, already billed over $500 billion dollars for the S&L looting, were charged another $70 billion to bail out the FDIC, then footed the bill for a secret 2 1/2-year rescue of Citibank, which was close to collapse after the Latin American debt crunch hit home.  With their bill’s paid by US taxpayers and bank deregulation a done deal, the stage was set for a slew of bank mergers like none the world had ever seen.

Reagan Undersecretary of Treasury George Gould had stated that concentration of banking into five to ten giant banks was what the US economy needed.  Gould’s nightmare vision was about to come true.

In 1992, Bank of America bought its biggest West Coast rival Security Pacific, then swallowed up the looted Continental Bank of Illinois for cheap.  Bank of America later took a 34% stake in Black Rock (Barclays owns 20% of Black Rock) and an 11% share in China Construction Bank, making it the nation’s second largest bank holding company with assets of $214 billion.  Citibank controlled $249 billion. [4]

Both banks have since increase their assets to around $2 trillion each.

In 1993 Chemical Bank gobbled up Texas Commerce to become the third largest bank holding company with $170 billion in assets.  Chemical Bank had already merged with Manufacturers Hanover Trust in 1990.

North Carolina National Bank and C&S Sovran merged into Nation’s Bank, then the fourth largest US bank holding company, with $169 billion in its war chest.  Fleet Norstar bought Bank of New England, while Norwest bought United Banks of Colorado.

Throughout this period US bank profits were soaring, breaking records with each new quarter.  The year 1995 broke all previous records for bank mergers.  Deals totaling $389 billion occurred that year. [5]  The Big Five investment banks, who had just made boatloads of money steering Latin American debt negotiations, now made a killing steering the bank and industrial merger-mania of the 1980’s and 1990’s.

According to Standard & Poors the top five investment banks were Merrill Lynch, Goldman Sachs, Morgan Stanley Dean Witter, Salomon Smith Barney and Lehman Brothers.  One deal that fell through in 1995 was a proposed merger between London’s biggest investment bank S. G. Warburg and Morgan Stanley Dean Witter.  Warburg chose Union Bank of Switzerland as its suitor instead, creating UBS Warburg as a sixth force in investment banking.

After the 1995 feeding frenzy the money center banks moved aggressively into the Middle East, establishing operations in Tel Aviv, Beirut and Bahrain – where the US 5th Fleet was setting up shop.  Bank privatizations in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisiaand Israel opened the door to the mega-banks in those nations.  Chase and Citibank borrowed money to Royal Dutch/Shell and Saudi Petrochemical, while JP Morgan advised the Qatargas consortium led by Exxon Mobil. [6]

The global insurance industry had a case of merger mania as well.  By 1995 Traveler’s Group had bought Aetna, Warren Buffet’s Berkshire Hathaway had eaten up Geico, Zurich Insurance had swallowed Kemper Corporation, CNA Financial had purchased Continental Companies and General RE Corporation had sunk its teeth into Colonia Konzern AG.

In late 1998, the Citibank colossus merged with Travelers Group to become Citigroup, creating a behemoth worth $700 billion that boasted 163,000 employees in over 100 countries and included the firms of Salomon Smith Barney (a joint venture with Morgan Stanley), Commercial Credit, Primerica Financial Services, Shearson Lehman, Barclays America, Aetna and Security Pacific Financial. [7]

That same year, Bankers Trust and US investment bank, Alex Brown, were scooped up by Deutsche Bank, which had also purchased Morgan Grenfell ofLondonin 1989.  The purchase made Deutsche Bank the world’s largest bank at the time with assets of $882 billion.  In January of 2002, Japanese titans Mitsubishi and Sumitomo combined operations to create Mitsubishi Sumitomo Bank, which surpassed Deutsche Bank with assets of $905 billion. [8]

By 2004 HSBC had become the world’s second largest bank.  Six years later, all three behemoths had been eclipsed by both BNP and Royal Bank of Scotland.

In the US, the George Gould nightmare reached its ugly nadir just in time for the new millennium when Chase Manhattan swallowed up Chemical Bank.  Bechtel banker Wells Fargo bought Norwest Bank, while Bank of America absorbed Nations Bank. The coup de grace came when the reunified House of Morgan announced that it would merge with the Rockefeller Chase Manhattan/Chemical Bank/ Manufacturers Hanover machine.

Four giant banks emerged to rule theUS financial roost.  JP Morgan Chase and Citigroup were kings of capital on the East Coast.  Together they control 52.86% of the New York Federal Reserve Bank. [9]  Bank of America and Wells Fargo reigned supreme on the West Coast.

During the 2008 banking crisis these firms got much larger, receiving a nearly $1 trillion government bailout compliments of Bush Treasury Secretary and Goldman Sachs alumni Henry Paulsen; while quietly taking over distressed assets for pennies on the dollar.

Barclays took over Lehman Brothers.  JP Morgan Chase got Washington Mutual and Bear Stearns.  Bank of America was handed Merrill Lynch and Countrywide.  Wells Fargo swallowed up Wachovia – the nation’s 5th biggest bank.

The same Eight Families-controlled banks, which for decades had galloped their Four Horsemen of oil roughshod through thePersian Gulfoil patch, are now more powerful than at any time in history.  They are the Four Horsemen of US banking.

Dean Henderson is the author of Big Oil & Their Bankers in the Persian Gulf: Four Horsemen, Eight Families & Their Global Intelligence, Narcotics & Terror Network and The Grateful Unrich: Revolution in 50 Countries.  His Left Hook blog is at deanhenderson.wordpress.com

Footnotes:

  • [1] The Great Crash of 1929. John Kenneth Galbraith. Houghton, Mifflin Company.Boston. 1979. p.148
  • [2] Ibid
  • [3] Evening Edition. National Public Radio.2-27-95
  • [4] “Bank of America will Purchase Chicago Bank”. The Register-Guard.Eugene,OR.1-29-94
  • [5] “Big-time Bankers Profit from M&A Fever”. Knight-Ridder News Service.12-30-95
  • [6] “US Banks find New Opportunities in the Middle East”. Amy Dockser Marcus. Wall Street Journal.10-12-95
  • [7] “Making a Money Machine”. Daniel Kadlec. Time. 4-20-98. p.44
  • [8]BBCWorld News.1-20-02
  • [9] Rule by Secrecy: The Hidden History that Connects the Trilateral Commission, the Freemasons and the Great Pyramids”. Jim Marrs. HarperCollins Publishers.New   York. 2000. p.74
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14 Comments for “The Four Horsemen of Banking”

  1. Not sure where I got this anymore, butI just wanted to know if it jibed with this:
    1. Rothschild Banks of London and Berlin
    2. Lazard Brothers Banks of Paris
    3. Israel Moses Seif Banks of Italy
    4. Warburg Bank of Hamburg and Amsterdam
    5. Lehman Brothers of NY
    6. Kuhn, Loeb Bank of NY (Now Shearson American Express)
    7. Goldman, Sachs of NY
    8. National Bank of Commerce NY/Morgan Guaranty Trust (J. P. Morgan Bank – Equitable Life – Levi P. Morton are principal shareholders)
    9. Hanover Trust of NY (William and David Rockefeller & Chase National Bank NY are principal shareholders)

    Examination of the charts and text in the House Banking Committee Staff Report of August, 1976 and the current stockholders list of the 12 regional Federal Reserve Banks show this same family control.

  2. Lay it out with a little more clarity. Who exactly are the “8 Families”?

    • duay khwaam nap theuu

      The families are
      the Goldman Sachs,
      the Rockefellers,
      the Lehmans and
      Kuhn Loebs of New York;
      the Rothschilds of Paris and London;
      the Warburgs of Hamburg;
      the Lazards of Paris; and
      the Israel Moses Seifs of Rome.

      Source: “The Federal Reserve Cartel: The Eight Families” article by Dean Henderson

  3. Mr. H.
    Excellent article, sir.
    I understand that space is limited, however, it would have been illuminating to place the events you document into a longer timeline, and perhaps in lieu of the struggle here in America with the illicit central bank. Today that illicit bank is the (neither) Federal or Reserve. We can clearly witness today the use of massive money creation, spurring inflation has been going on since Woodrow Wilson betrayed America and pushed through the Neither Fed or Res in 1913. But like just about all politicians, he was a lily liver coward bought and sold long before he assumed the presidency.
    On aside note, there is zero evidence the 16th, or the 17th Amendment ever were ratified. In fact, the evidence suggests neither was. Thus, the income tax is an illegal construct, and no senator “elected” holds a legit office.
    Ain’t real history fun?

  4. U.S. Grant was my great, great Uncle. Yes, he lived his final years in relative poverty for daring to broach the subject of the Rothchilds. Also, our family lore says he was a serious grouch in his final years, but a true family hero none-the-less. Why? Not because he was a General and President, but because of his massive struggles to free all Americans from slavery.

    • Wow !!!
      Do you have access to any of his priceless memoirs on this subject?? or even his statements as passed on to your generation?

      • Hi LC — Nothing written per se, mostly family oral lore that gets told and retold at get-togethers. Over the years we also have personal stories of Daniel Boone, Thomas Jefferson and the first surviving Virginia Colony in 1605 where family members were the carpenters (the Wards) that built the Colony housing on that mosquito infested island. My aunt, who died some years back,had done much research physically. Her efforts are a bit scattered now, but with some work, the Intenet and lots of time I believe I could pull it back together. I never thought many people would be interested because so much of the modern world is into me-me-me. It could be a fun project though. There are some awful funny, very human stories.

        • Thanks Tom:

          I would like to refer you to some exchanges about U.S. Grant in a recent VT page at bottom of:
          ************http://www.veteranstoday.com/2012/11/12/afghanistan-is-creating-a-narco-state-considered-nation-building/
          Especially the last comment which I copy paste below:

          LC
          November 14, 2012 – 7:32 pm
          *****http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EMXFa9KxGY

          At the beginning of above tape it says: “…swindled by a banking investor Grant suddenly found himself destitute…” The unnamed was a Rothschild agent with the mission to swindle Grant and his son out of everything which he did.
          But, I just found this source where you could probably locate the image of that newspaper. If you do please post the link to it:

          *****http://www.usgrantlibrary.org/access/tutorial.asp

          Tom: I bet the U.S. Grant library would be excited to follow leads to the finding of any documents or some method of documenting what your extended family can recollect from memory.

  5. A very related comment & link to its related article of two years ago are copy pasted here:

    *******http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/in_money-changers_we_trust_20101228/P0/

    Article Title: “IN MONEY CHANGERS WE TRUST” by Robert Sheer
    Its Below comment by anonymous:

    “HAMILTON Project” named after “Alexander
    Hamilton”, the main “RAT”, as in “I SMELL A RAT”
    quoted from one of the “FOUNDING FATHERS”.
    Alexander Hamilton was the direct agent, spy, and
    sabator of the original Mayor Amschel Bauer
    (Rothschild) who successfully set up Rothschild’s
    first American Central Bank. Robert Rubin, and all
    his successful predecessors, and successors, have
    also been Rothschild agents and sabators for over
    two hundred years. If any one of those people had
    loyalty to Americans then they were assassinated,
    or financially destroyed, like General / President
    Grant, who during the Civil War, published details
    of Rothschild’s creation of the Civil War, and
    Rothschild’s financing of both sides…Grant was
    led into total poverty after his presidency, and
    was the only U.S. President who lived his retired
    life on donations from the public!!!
    Rothschild crimes established a world government
    over two hundred years ago, and since then
    everything else that has happened in the world has
    been to maintain, reinforce, and enlarge that world
    government, which is now in a totalitarian control
    of the world.
    “The Rothschild Dynasty” by a Dr. John Coleman is a
    very informative reading into the global crimes of
    this global evil, which hijacked the world over two
    centuries ago. Also, YOUTUBE: “PBS Money Masters”,
    & google: “WHO OWNS THE FED”

    • duay khwaam nap theuu

      Above comment re Alexander Hamilton grossly misinformed (at best). The “project,” the Hamilton Project is another matter; they used Hamilton’s name to run an op,

      Search
      Chaitkin “Alexander Hamilton” Burr
      Andy Chaitkin is an excellent historian re the man, Alexander Hamilton.

      The financiers who run the game have an extensive propaganda machine.
      Chaitin and his father among others fight it with careful research and facts.

      • Rothschild’s first & top saboteur & terrorist in America: Alexander Hamilton (a/k/a: “the RAT” of the “Founding Fathers”):

        ——Delete ******** in browser:

        John Adams rips Alexander Hamilton a new one
        **********http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KaWBs46USqE&feature=related

        Authors Forum: Hamilton’s Curse | Thomas J. DiLorenzo
        **********http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zn5Abt62KhI&feature=related

        Why the Constitution Had to Be Destroyed | Thomas J. DiLorenzo
        **********http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wDyDxgJuaDY&feature=related

        Money III – Bank Wars! (ALEXANDER HAMILTON-ROTSCHILD AGENT AGAINST USA):
        ***********http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QtVlv7Ox93w

        The Curse of Alexander Hamilton | Jack Chambless (Professor)
        ************http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b-poQ_22gcg

        Articles on Alexander Hamilton
        ************http://www.fee.org/search/?q=alexander%20hamilton

  6. Why keep writing about all the rotten symptoms of usury from slavery when Mike Montagne already has the solution? Mathematically perfected economy or ‘MPE’. That is what freedom is all about.

    • CH Douglas realized in the 20′s & 30′s there was a problem in the current economic system in that there people were producing goods but they never had the purchasing power to buy these goods and that this insufficiency was caused by interest having to be paid & money having to brought into circulation as a debt & he developed the theory of what he called social credit & payment of a basic income & a national dividend which would enable people to benefit from technological developments & give them sufficient purchasing power to maintain a minimum standard of living. That was bitterly opposed by the City of London because they realised if that caught on it would be the end of their banking system spending something like £5 million trying to discount his social credit propaganda (£36 billion in today’s money).

      Japan adopted his social credit policies and whilst the rest of the world was struggling Japan managed to take off very quickly & within 10 years from 1931-41 the GNP of japan increased by 253% which has never been replicated by any other country (They had attacked China in the 30’s because they were in search of raw materials). The greatest fear of the Rothschilds were that other countries would replicate the Japanese banking system & affect their usury system. That is the principle reason why Japan was provoked into attacking Pearl Harbor. In 1939 America had broken its treaty of commerce which it had signed in 1911, cut off oil supplies, scrap iron & surrounding Japan deploying naval ships & so forth. An escalated pressure was forced on japan and eventually they were driven into a corner.

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