Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers (Part I)



…by Jonas E. Alexis


29741393zA few days ago, Paul Kendal of the British newspaper the Telegraph wrote that in 1941 a medical officer by the name of Major Leo Skurnik received an Iron Cross from the German high command. Skurnik happened to be a Jew. Kendal wrote,

“And Skurnik was not the only Jew fighting on the side of the Germans. More than 300 found themselves in league with the Nazis when Finland, who had a mutual enemy in the Soviet Union, joined the war in June 1941.”[1]

Yet Kendal, without serious self-examination, propounded, “The alliance between Hitler and the race he vowed to annihilate — the only instance of Jews fighting for Germany’s allies — is one of the most extraordinary aspects of the Second World War, and yet hardly anyone, including many Finns, know anything about it.”[2]

The serious historical questions which Kendal failed to posit and which are largely and sometimes deliberately ignored by the Holocaust establishment are simply these: If Hitler’s goal was to annihilate an entire race, how is it possible that there were thousands upon thousands of people of Jewish descent in Nazi Germany?

Is it historically and intellectually satisfying to maintain both contradictory positions at the same time and in the same respect? Is it rationally sound to say that those Jewish people were simply dupes and simply didn’t know Hitler’s real intention? Didn’t they know that their ultimate doom was concentration camps? What actually made them join the Third Reich?

Those are some of the many questions that I asked one writer who happened to publish a widely read book on Nazi Germany. The book is published by the University of California.

In our long private conversation, he kept positing that it was Hitler’s intent to exterminate the Jews of Europe, but throughout his analysis, he failed to seriously deal with the puzzling situation that people of Jewish descent in Nazi Germany posed a serious threat to the prevailing thesis that the Hitler wanted to exterminate all Jews of Europe.

Jewish historian Walter Laqueur attempted to answer this nagging dichotomy last year. He admitted that there were indeed people of Jewish descent in Nazi Germany, but argued that

“Nazi policy toward half- and quarter-Jews (Mischlinge of the first and second degree) was contradictory and changed over time. Half-Jews who were not brought up as Jews (Geltungsjuden) were not deported and killed: There were legal problems, and Hitler, who did not want to be bothered by lawyers, declared that he would take a binding decision only after the final victory.

“Those of military age had to serve in the army both at the beginning of the war and its end when the armed forces were depleted. But in between they were excluded from military service, and they were not permitted to serve in positions of command.”[3]

Is this historically accurate? What, then, is the background of all these complex issues and how can one confront some of the prevailing claims of the Holocaust establishment?

1007106-179234-1Jewish historian Bryan Mark Rigg maintains in his study Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers that “numerous areas relating to the Holocaust and the Nazi era in general remain largely unexplained or poorly understood.”[4]

These areas are poorly understood because theories that are inconsistent with the prevailing vision of the Holocaust establishment—even when based on historical documentation—are dismissed without examination. It is no accident that Laqueur called Rigg’s study “malevolent, more often ignorant, and breathtakingly obtuse in its conclusions.”[5]

Much of Rigg’s sources are from archival documents and personal interviews with those who said they were of Jewish descent in Nazi Germany, but since Laqueur does not seem to be interested in serious research like this, he dismisses Rigg by name-calling.

Rigg argues that “tens of thousands of men of Jewish descent served in the Wehrmacht during Hitler’s rule,” and according to his best estimate, the number of soldiers of Jewish extraction—a group he terms Mischlinge—was more than 150,000.[6] He warns readers, however, that

“previous estimates varied and future scholars may devise more advanced computations to produce a more precise figure. All such efforts should lead to the same significant conclusion: the number of Mischlinge in the Wehrmacht was far greater than anyone previously imagined.”[7]

Albert S. Lindemann
Albert S. Lindemann

Officers such as Bernhard Losener were well aware that if Hitler “treated half-Jews as Jews, the armed forces would probably lose 45,000 soldiers.”[8]

Hitler “allowed some Mischlinge to apply for exemptions under section 7 of the supplementary decrees of November 1935. In some cases, if Hitler approved, the Mischlinge was allowed to call himself or herself an Aryan.”[9]

Similarly, Jewish historian Sarah Gordon notes,

“In Germany some Jews even supported Hitler despite his anti-Semitism…Max Naumann, the head of the Association of German National Jews, ardently solicited support from the Nazi party after Hitler had come to power, pointing out the national loyalty of his members and their service to the German nation.

“Gerhart Hauptmann, a Nobel Prize recipient for literature, even voted for Hitler. Many Jews were quite comfortable living in Germany despite latent anti-Semitism, whether intellectual or social.”[10]

Hitler “played a direct role” in allowing such Jews to remain in his service.[11] Those Mischlinge families “had lived in Germany for generations, and most had lost all contact with their Jewish heritage. They had helped develop German society, fought in her wars, and furthered her culture. Some had not known of their Jewish heritage until Hitler came to power.”[12]

Historian Albert S. Lindemann of the University of California states that some Jews supported the Third Reich “at its creation; they had prospered materially in it, and they remained reticent to criticize it in a fundamental way.”[13]

What’s more startling is that Hitler “even allowed some to become high-ranking officers. Generals, admirals, navy ship captains, fighter pilots, and many ordinary soldiers served with Hitler’s personal approval.”[14] More importantly,

“Many German Jews and Mischlinge thought that Hitler based his anti-Semitic tirades on Ostjuden [German and Eastern Jews] who had emigrated from the ‘land of Bolshevism.’ The Nazis reinforced this preconception when they issued decrees against Ostjuden in 1933 and later when they forced eighteen thousand of them to leave the Reich in 1938…

Howard M. Sachar
Howard M. Sachar

“Dr. Max Naumann, a Jew and a retired World War I army major and founder of the militant right-wing organization of National German Jews, wrote Hitler on 20 March 1935 that he and his followers had fought to keep Ostjuden out of Germany. Naumann felt that these ‘hordes of half-Asian Jews’ were ‘dangerous guests’ in Germany and must be ‘ruthlessly expelled.’”[15]

Academically and economically, those Ostjuden made little progress largely because they learned “Polish Talmudic barbarism, as contrasted with refined German Bildung (education).”[16] Lindemann writes that

“Western Jews often described Ostjuden as parasitic and filled with hatred of non-Jews, those specifically Jewish qualities that were the source of the most insistent and hostile remarks by anti-Semites about Jews generally.”[17]

The Ostjuden were humiliated by the German Jews, who viewed them as “irrational, mystical,” and believed that their “superstitious religion…no longer had a place in a world based on reason and scientific knowledge.”[18]

Therefore, for the fully assimilated German Jews, “Hitler’s anti-Semitism” was “a reaction to the culture of the Ostjuden.”[19] Karl Marx himself despised the Ostjuden.[20]

It was no accident, then, that a group of wealthy intellectual Jews who were already immersed in Enlightenment thought and practice would despise some German Jews because of their “primitive lifestyle.”[21]

Wolf Zuelzer, “a 75 percent Jew,” declared that “for the majority of German Jews, the Orthodox Ostjuden dressed in his caftan, fur hat and ritual side-locks was a frightening apparition from the Dark Ages.”[22]

As a result, at the dawn of the twentieth century, “many of the local Jewish communities in Germany refused to allow Eastern Jews to vote in community elections on the grounds that they were not German nationals.”[23]

Robert Braun, a Mischlinge, noted, “Generally, Mischlinge are very anti-Semitic.”[24] Unsurprisingly, a number of Jewish groups strongly supported National Socialism, because they saw the Ostjuden

“as a grave danger to their social standing who, if allowed to stay in Germany, would only intensify anti-Semitic feelings. In several public statements during the 1920s and 1930s, liberal German Jews labeled Ostjuden ‘inferior’ and asked for state assistance to combat their immigration…Robert Braun recalled that his Jewish father, Dr. R. Leopold Braun, was an anti-Semite who did not like Ostjuden.”[25]

Not only that, most of the Mischlinge “felt Aryan and did everything they could to disassociate themselves from Jews and to be viewed as faithful Germans.”[26]

Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler


Hitler’s racial theories did not come out of thin air. In the early 1920s,

“he directed much of his hatred toward Eastern Jews and Jewish Communists…he also hated Communists and felt that Communism was a Jewish movement. He was present in Munich when Kurt Eisner, whom Hitler called ‘the international Jew,’ led his Socialist revolution from 1918 to 1919. Hitler felt that ‘Judeo-Bolsheviks’ like Esiner were responsible for and had profited from Germany’s defeat in World War I.”[27]

As we saw in previous articles, it was not just Hitler who saw that Bolshevism would create a nightmare in Europe. Winston Churchill and many other political leaders drew similar conclusions. For Hitler, the Jews made matters worse when the Red Terror, which was dominated by Jews,

“tried to gain more power, under the leadership of people of such Russian Jew Eugen Levine…As a witness to this chaos in Bavaria, Hitler described it as being a ‘rule by the Jews.’ So, since Hitler felt that Communism was a Jewish movement and inherently dangerous, he directed his hatred toward the Jews.”[28]

It was a sense of Jewish supremacy over the Germans that accelerated the Nazis to move quickly to develop a response to Jewish ascendancy. In the early part of the 1900s, Lindemann says,

“Gentiles could hardly miss noting how many liberal German-speaking Jews had begun to assert that a Jewish background engendered enlightenment, while a Germanic heritage was a burden, pulling in the direction of irrationality and barbarism. As historian Steven Beller has commented, ‘Jews…began to see themselves as bearers of the Enlightenment’ in Austria and Germany.”[29]

Lindemman continues,

“In private correspondence, Graetz expressed his destructive contempt for German values and Christianity even more forthrightly. In 1868 he had written to Moses Hess, ‘I am looking forward with pleasure to flogging the Germans and their leaders—Schleirmacher, Fichte, and the whole wretched Romantic school.’ In the same letter, he wrote ‘we must above all work to shatter Christianity.’”[30]

As early as 1902, a Viennese Jew by the name of Solomon Ehrmann talked about how the world needed to be “Jewified” in order to be enlightened and in order to fulfill the goals and purposes of Judaism.[31] This idea played a major role during the Bolshevik Revolution, particularly in the lives of non-Jews who joined the movement.[32]

Yet this side of history has never seen the light of day in the Holocaust establishment precisely because it would destroy the building block of this school of thought completely. Jewish historian Howard M. Sachar has a chapter on Nazi Germany in his over a thousand-page work A History of the Jews in America. Incredibly, he doesn’t even touch on these complex issues.[33]

Instead, he tells us that “anti-Semitic discrimination in all echelons of the Polish economy kept a quarter million Jews endlessly dependent on soup kitchens, clinics, orphanages.”[34]

What is even more astonishing is that when discussing the Frankfurt School, Sachar only mentions in passing that it was an institution funded largely by Jews and for Jewish leftists, but failed to document their pornographic and revolutionary activities.

Moreover, he did not even touch on the pornographic nature of Weimar Germany, which Jewish revolutionaries made possible and which eventually incited anti-Jewish reactions among some racialists and other secular intellectuals and writers of various stripes. On the contrary, Sachar extols the school: “It was extraordinary research, in both quantity and quality.”[35]

Sachar turns a blind eye because his ideology does not allow him to see the obvious. He keeps propounding the unconvincing thesis that Jewish persecution was a direct result of hatred, rather than Jewish revolutionary activity.

Although Sachar mentions that a number of Jews participated in the Bolshevik Revolution, he tempers his remarks by saying, “The largest numbers of Russian Jews had never adopted a Bolshevik political agenda.”[36] According to Sachar, Jews are persecuted because of their success![37]

ynjsoldiersDespite the fact that many Germans during that time opposed anti-Semitism, it was obvious to them that “many Jews themselves were not genuinely interested in mixing but were rather bent on destruction and domination.”[38] Rigg noted the same thing:

“Quarter-Jew Horst von Oppenfeld, a descendant of the Jewish Oppenheim family, who was a captain and an adjutant to Stauffenberg, said that Orthodox Jews experience so many problems because they do not assimilate. ‘Their problem,’ he claims, ‘is due to the fact that they want to be different.’”[39]

Daniel Jonah Goldhagen argues in his book Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust that anti-Semitism was so ingrained in the entire German people that not even the ordinary Germans were spared that irrational hatred.[40]

Other Jewish writers such as Lucy Dawidowicz and Steven T. Katz ascribe to that thesis.[41] Yehuda Bauer agrees with many of Goldhagen’s theses and tries mightily to rescue him from historical oblivion and insanity, although he criticizes Goldhagen on other issues.[42] Yet Lindemann tells us a different story:

“Racism and anti-Semitism were, in the eyes of many German-speaking Jews, more accurately seen as products of reactionaries and of the mob. Hatred of Jews, they believed, was most typically to be found in eastern Europe, or in the less developed parts of the German-speaking world.”[43]

Historically, the Goldhagen thesis suffers badly when one looks at Jews in Germany in the 1800s. Sarah Gordon, in a book that was written years before Goldhagen postulated his historically risible thesis, notes:

“Cultural explanations that include anti-Semitism as a central reason for Hitler’s electoral success are inadequate as explanatory tools because of their nebulous formulation and because counterexamples from the works of famous scholars and writers indicate that cultural influences were diverse; for example, Treitschke wrote an anti-Semitic tract, but Mommsen wrote a countering statement.

“Thus German’s cultural heritage was not uniformly anti-Semitic. Moreover, a deep commitment to a legal and constitutional state was shared by late-nineteenth-century liberals and conservatives. Both groups rejected all attempts to nullify the legal equality of Jews; not a single law was passed between 1869 and 1933 to rescind the new freedoms granted during the foundation of Germany.

“Of course, in practice there were many instances of job discrimination, social snobbery, and other types of hostility toward Jews; these were common in all Western countries at the time. Nevertheless, legal emancipation was accepted as part and parcel of the new state despite pressure from rabid anti-Semites to re-impose legal restrictions on Jews.

“Not only liberals and conservatives but also many Catholics and Protestants were opposed to anti-Semitic legislation on ideological or intellectual grounds…This was obviously a rational pragmatic stance, but in addition it was an expression of the humanitarianism embodied in Christian ethics.”[44]

goldhagenBefore the 1930s, groups that adopted anti-Semitic propaganda influenced only a fraction of the population, and they “never drew a large percentage of the total votes. Only in the election of 1930 and later years did the Nazis succeed in obtaining strong support…and the causative role of anti-Semitism in this success is by no means clear.”[45] Moreover,

“Between 1887 and 1912 anti-Semitic deputies represented only 2 percent of all Reichstag delegates, including all who were reelected, and by 1914 the anti-Semitic parties were practically defunct and their press was in ruins. After World War I additional small anti-Semitic parties arose with racist programs, but once again their electoral strength was less than 5 percent of all valid votes.

“These small volkisch groups eventually either allied with and were absorbed by the Nazis or gradually faded into insignificance. The track record of anti-Semitic parties was very poor even from their own point of view.”[46]

After laying out the historical background of anti-Jewish reaction, Gordon concludes that “the attributions of anti-Semitism to a uniquely distorted ‘German mind’ or ‘German character’ are largely irrelevant, whether based on psychology, sociology, intellectual history, or demonology.”[47]

If Goldhagen is right, then Jews would never have gotten so much power in Germany. Gordon states, “German universities admitted Jews on an equal footing as early as 1790, and Jews were overrepresented among university professors and students between 1870 and 1933.”

Jews in 1909-1910 were “less than 1 percent of the population,” yet “almost 12 percent of the instructors at German universities were Jewish, and an additional 7 percent were Jewish converts to Christianity, so that 19 percent of the instructors in Germany were of Jewish origin.”[48]

Rigg writes that “between 1800 and 1900, around seventy thousand Jews converted to Christianity in Germany and in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. These numbers do not include those Jews who left Judaism and did not embrace another religion.”[49]

The Jews perceived that the only way they could move forward was through assimilation, which sometimes included (false or opportunistic) conversion. For Heinrich Heine, conversion to Christianity was the “entrance ticket to European civilization…Most Jews who now converted to Christianity did so simply as a mode of qualifying per se and, as often as not, without really relinquishing their family and social ties with the Jewish community.”[50]

Many of those Jews, after their conversions, as Michael A. Meyer puts it, “often associated almost exclusively with fellow converts. In Germany they were referred to as Tauffuden, baptized Jews. They had not really become Christians but had taken on a borderline identity in which they still feared the verdict of the Gentile.”[51]

Karl Marx’s father, for example, accepted Christianity more “for practical reasons than heart-felt conviction.”[52] There were also instances where “Jewish parents would baptize their children in infancy while retaining their own religious status.”[53]

In the nineteenth century, the tsar began to discover that Jews were fomenting revolution and began to establish policies in an attempt “to Russify the Jews through conversionist assimilation.”[54]

Historian Erich E. Haberer writes that this was largely forced assimilation, but Jewish scholar Benjamin Nathans seems to show that it was not forced; since the tsarist government wanted the Jews to integrate, they produced a number of academic programs that would be suitable to Jews. One of them was the university, “the setting in which selective Jewish integration achieved its most dramatic success.”[55]

There were also movements among the Jews that sought to “‘Europeanize’ Russian Jewry through secular education and general socio-cultural self-regeneration.”[56] The results of these undertakings were many, but one was that “Jewish gymnasium students and rabbinical seminarians” began to hijack nihilism, which was used “for preaching socialism, propagating revolution,” and so on. Nihilism was opposed by both Orthodox Jews and Gentiles.

“On almost every level [the nihilists] had to struggle against unyielding opponents who viewed their unconventional behaviour and unauthorized activity as subversive to the established order of traditional Jewish and official Russian society.

“For those who persevered this was a ‘school of dissent’ which imbued them with a sense of mission, gave them the stamina to fight on, and trained them to operate in a hostile environment.”[57]

Heinrich Heine fit the pattern of Jews who converted to Christianity for political or “opportunistic reasons.”[58] This was justified when revolution broke out in France in the summer of 1830. Heine, who was on vacation during that time, felt that he too should take up arms in the revolutionary mode of the time. He wrote,

“Gone is my longing for peace and quiet. Once again I know what I want, what I ought, what I must do…I am a son of the revolution and will take up arms.”[59]

When Moses Mendelssohn, a Jewish composer who (opportunistically) converted to Christianity, failed to put his musical talent to revolutionary use, Heine scolded him.  He lamented to one of his friends in 1846,

“I cannot forgive this man of independent means, because he sees fit to serve the Christian pietists with his great and enormous talent. The more I admire his greatness, the more angry I am to see it so iniquitously misused. If I had the good fortune to be Moses Mendelssohn’s grandson, I would not use my talents to set the piss of the Lamb to music.”[60]

Heine “contracted syphilis in his youth and died of the malady in 1856.”[61] During his last days, when his health was deteriorating, Heine gave signs that his conversion was not sincere. He said,

“If I could walk with crutches I’d go to church, and if I could walk without I’d go to the whorehouse.”[62]

He called Christianity “a gloomy, sanguinary religion for criminals,” and later noted that “I make no secret of my Judaism, to which I have not returned, because I have not left it.”[63]

Around 1835 Heine met Marx and Engels, and in 1842 he foresaw that Communism would terrorize the entire world.

“Though Communism is at present little talked about, vegetating in forgotten attics on miserable straw pallets, it is nevertheless the dismal hero destined to play a great, if transitory role in the modern tragedy…

“[It will be] the old absolutist tradition…but in different clothes and with new slogans and catch-phrases…there will then be only one shepherd with an iron crook and one identically shorn, identically bleating human herd…Somber times loom ahead…I advise our grandchildren to be born with a very thick skin.”[64]

Moses Mendelssohn was a strong proponent of assimilation, and by 1871, Jews “had become Germans in speech, outlook, and culture, as well as their patriotic feelings.”[65]

Yet full assimilation was another way to embrace German mores, which progressively had become more secular and somewhat Masonic in nature and ideology.

Heinrich Heine
Heinrich Heine

At the dawn of the nineteenth century, Jewish intellectuals began to embrace Enlightenment principles and distance themselves from the “darkness” of the Talmud. Instead of the Talmud, they began to embrace Godtthold Ephraim Lessing’s play Nathan der Weise, in which we are told that all the major religions—namely Christianity, Judaism, and Islam—are false.

E. Michael Jones argued that the play was Masonic in nature.[66] But this form of covert operation was another way to keep revolutionaries away from ultimate reason and the cross. Jewish philologist Hermann Steinthal bragged that “

“Together with the prophets, it is Lessing, Herder, Kant, Fichte, Schiller, and Goethe and the two Humboldts who arouse our enthusiasm—and they could not have emerged from any other people.”[67]

Assimilation, in many ways, was a break from the “darkness” of the Talmud. But that form of assimilation drew many Jewish intellectuals to the Enlightenment ideology, which we saw was Masonic in its ideological orientation. Jewish historian Barbara Tuchman acknowledged,

“The process begins with the ‘Enlightenment’ initiated by Moses Mendelssohn in 18th century Germany, which shattered the protective shell of orthodoxy and opened the way to acquaintance with Western culture and participation in Western affairs. The reign of the Talmud and the rabbis was broken. All over Europe the shattered windows were flying open. Jews read Voltaire and Rousseau, Goethe and Kant. The reform movement followed, shedding the old rituals, trying to adjust Judaism to the modern world.”[68]

Many of the Jews at that time saw that “assimilation into German society was completely consonant with being a ‘good Jew.’”[69] They appreciated German culture and mores, and even contributed to its advancement.

Assimilation was such a major theme among Jewish communities that Henry Oswalt, a Jew and grandfather of Michael Hauck, “forbade his daughter to marry a Jew. She obeyed. The grandfather, whose mother was a cousin of Heinrich Heine’s, wanted the family to be more German and accepted by society.”[70]

Assimilation, to some extent, proved to be better than the “darkness of the Talmud”:

“In Prussia’s war against France from 1870 to 1871, 12,000 Jews served: 120 were officers and 373 received the Iron Cross; 483 died or were wounded during the war…After the war’s victorious conclusion, many Jews felt their service entitled them to enter the ranks of the German elite.”[71]

There were still some doubts about how loyal the Jews were, particularly since Europe went through a revolution in 1848, led exclusively by Jews. But Jewish soldiers who remained loyal to German culture and mores were highly honored for their service.

“German Jews displayed their willingness to make the supreme sacrifice for their country time and time again when Germany went to war.”[72]

Arno J. Mayer
Arno J. Mayer

The same thing was happening in France. Jewish historian Arno Mayer notes, “During the Great War as well as between the wars, the assimilationists were intensely patriotic. They were also good republicans, dividing their support between the traditional right and the moderate left.”[73]

Suspicions of Jews as revolutionaries gradually faded, since many proved themselves to be good soldiers, particularly in Germany.

“In 1760, the ‘enlightened despot’ Frederick the Great promoted the Jew Konstantin Nathanael von Salemon to general for his bravery in battle…Frederick also employed some Schutzjuden, who had become court Jews, as general purveyors to his army…The king also encouraged the Jews under his rule to build factories to supply his army.

“Veitel Ephraim and Daniel Itzig possibly ‘helped Frederick avoid defeat’ during the Seven Years’ War by supplying and equipping his troops. In recognition for his intelligence and contribution to society, Frederick granted the German-Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn exemptions from some of the laws restricting Jews’ freedom.”[74]

Yet Rigg declares that “this should not imply that Frederick liked Jews—he in fact detested them. But it seems his hatred did not cloud his reason. He knew he needed some Jews to ensure the smooth running of his country.”[75]

Reason certainly belies this claim. If he detested Jews so much, why would he grant Mendelssohn exemptions from some of the laws? Surely Frederick was not ignorant of Jewish revolutionary activities, and it stands to reason that he probably was suspicious because of that.

But when the Jews proved themselves to be men of honor, they received the accolades any other German would. Many of the Jews were so loyal to the German culture that “on 11 March 1812, Prussia’s first prime minister, Karl August von Hardenberg, emancipated the Jews and allowed them to perform military service.”[76]

“During Prussia’s War of Independence from 1813 to 1815, a conservative estimate of 731 Prussian Jews served in the war against Napoleon. Five hundred and sixty-one of them were volunteers. One German Jew wrote, ‘Who doesn’t rejoice to hear the honorable call to fight and conquer for the Fatherland…Oh Death for the Fatherland, you’re the most beautiful fate to befall any mortal.’”[77] Some of the stories of those Jews who stood in high regard in the army are worth mentioning:

“Luise Grafemus (real name Esther Manuel) decided to join the Prussian army after she lost her Jewish husband in battle. She served during the battles of 1813 and 1814 and later became a Wachtmeister. She was wounded twice in battle and received the Iron Cross.

“During the battle at Belle-Alliance (Waterloo) in 1815 alone, 55 Jewish soldiers of the reserve militia died in combat. Prussia decorated 82 Jews with the Iron Cross, and one received the Pour le Merite decoration between 1813 and 1815…

“Moses Mendelssohn’s youngest son, Nathan, reported for duty in 1813 and later became a lieutenant. According to the records, 23 of these Prussian Jewish soldiers became officers: one major and 22 lieutenants.”[78]

Moses Mendelssohn
Moses Mendelssohn

In World War I, about 10,000 Jews “volunteered for duty, and over 100,000 out of a total German-Jewish population of 550,000 served during World War I. Some 78 percent saw frontline duty, 12,000 died in battle, over 30,000 received decorations, and 19,000 were promoted.

“Approximately 2,000 Jews became military officers, and 1,200 became medical officers…One Jewish pilot, Lieutenant Wilhelm Frakl, died in action and received the prestigious Pour le Merite…The youngest Jewish volunteer of the war was thirteen-year-old Joseph Zippes. He lost both legs during combat.”[79]

Jews stood with the Germans and showed their patriotism through their deeds. A letter which was written by a German Jew declared that Jews and Germans “are united, one people, one army. In love and loyalty we get along. We stand together! All differences disappear…there is only one people in our land! We fight for the kaiser and the Reich.”[80]

German-Jewish philosopher Hermann Cohen expressed a similar sentiment. In 1914, one Jew wrote, “The German Jews stand shoulder to shoulder with their Christian comrades without anyone asking about ancestry or religion.”

Sergeant Fritz Beckhardt, “a Jew, flew a plane with a swastika on its side to display his German pride.”[81] This certainly puts the Goldhagen thesis in a historically uncomfortable position.

What should all these historical accounts teach us? First, it must be pointed out that there were problems with the assimilation process in Germany.[82]

It must also be re-emphasized that people should be cherished for who they are, for as Winston Churchill rightly put it, people can be good, bad, and indifferent. Churchill moved on to add quite powerfully that

“Nothing is more wrong than to deny to an individual, on account of race or origin, his right to be judged on his personal merits and conduct.”[83]

This is certainly an important, and it is quite in line with what the Church has been saying for thousands of years. The Church has been echoing that Jewish revolutionaries embrace subversive movements not because their DNA is corrupt—a morally disgusting and logically repugnant argument which has made inroads in racialist literature, too much to detail here—but because they reject metaphysical reason or ultimate Logos. Logos, as we shall see in a future article, is the source of the moral and political order. Once Logos is rejected, metaphysical and political chaos reigns.

And once that metaphysical rejection is codified in a theological text—the Talmud—the breeding ground for political, economic, and spiritual revolution is therefore firmly planted in the minds of those revolutionaries in one way or another.

But the issue always takes place in the theological realm and then works its way down to the political and intellectual realm with severe consequences.

One person who indirectly ended up admitting this point was one-time cultural phenomenon Elizabeth Wurtzel. She argued that people like her “are hopeless Talmudists”[84] who draw their ideological and sexual politics from the well of the Talmud.

In that sense, Wurtzel is quite in agreement with Benjamin Disraeli in his 1844 novel Coningsby, in which he declared that Jewish revolutionaries have always taken part in revolutionary and intellectual movements in Europe, and Russia and Germany happened to be two of their victims.[85]

It must be emphasized again that here we are not fighting against decent people who embrace docility, civility, and rationality. We are fighting against a wicked ideology and the consequences of that weltanschauung.

That wicked ideology is the enemy of the Jewish people precisely because it always creates anti-Jewish reactions whenever it is applied logically and consistently. And flashes of that wicked ideology and double standards are all over the Ukraine crisis.

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[1] Paul Kendall, “The Jews Who Fought for Hitler: ‘We Did Not Help the Germans. We Had a Common Enemy,’” Telegraph, March 9, 2014.

[2] Ibid.

[3] Walter Laqueur, “Hitler’s Jews: Max Von Oppenheim and the Myth of German Jewish Guilt,” Tablet Magazine, August 21, 2013.

[4] Bryan Mark Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers: The Untold Story of Nazi Racial Laws and Men of Jewish Descent in the German Military (Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2002), 1.

[5] Laqueur, “Hitler’s Jews: Max Von Oppenheim and the Myth of German Jewish Guilt,” Tablet Magazine, August 21, 2013.

[6] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 1.

[7] Ibid., 51.

[8] Ibid., 96.

[9] Ibid., 98.

[10] Sarah Gordon, Hitler, Germans, and the “Jewish Question” (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), 47.

[11] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 1, 19-20.

[12] Ibid., 24.

[13] Albert S. Lindemann, Esau’s Tears: Anti-Semitism and the Rise of the Jews (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997), 332.

[14] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 1-2.

[15] Ibid., 12.

[16] Ibid., 10.

[17] Lindemann, Esau’s Tears, 51.

[18] Rigg, Rescued from the Reich: How One of Hitler’s Soldiers Saved the Lubavitcher Rebbe (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004), 10.

[19] Ibid., 10.

[20] Lindemann, Esau’s Tears, 164.

[21] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 12.

[22] Ibid., 12.

[23] Ibid., 12.

[24] Ibid., 24-25.

[25] Ibid., 13.

[26] Ibid., 25.

[27] Ibid., 15.

[28] Ibid., 15.

[29] Lindemann, Esau’s Tears, 331.

[30] Ibid., 141

[31] Ibid., 331.

[32] Ibid., 443.

[33] See Howard M. Sachar, A History of the Jews in America (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1992), chapter 14.

[34] Ibid., 465.

[35] Ibid., 751.

[36] Howard M. Sachar, A History of the Jews in the Modern World (New York: Vintage Books, 2006), 326.

[37] Ibid., 227-228.

[38] Lindemann, Esau’s Tears, 331.

[39] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 48.

[40] See Daniel Jonah Goldhagen, Hitler’s Willing Executioners: Ordinary Germans and the Holocaust (New York: Vintage Books, 1997).

[41] Norman Finkelstein and Ruth Bettina Birn, A Nation on Trial: The Goldhagen Thesis and Historical Truth (New York: Henry Holt, 1998), 7.

[42] See Yehuda Bauer, Rethinking the Holocaust (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002), chapter five. Even he takes issue with some of Goldhagen’s citations: “Goldhagen puts all anti-Semitism in the same basket, including the liberal type that wanted to see the Jews disappear by assimilation and conversion. He quotes Uriel Tal, but Tal never said that liberal efforts to assimilate the Jews were the same as extermination programs” (98).

[43] Lindemann, Esau’s Tears, 332.

[44] Gordon, The “Jewish Question”, 27.

[45] Ibid., 29.

[46] Ibid., 32.

[47] Ibid., 48.

[48] Ibid., 13.

[49] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 51.

[50] MacDonald, Separation, 220; also Bakan, Freud and the Jewish Mystical Tradition, 46.

[51] Ibid.

[52] Lindemann, Esau’s Tears, 162.

[53] MacDonald, Separation., 220.

[54] Erich E. Haberer, Jews and Revolution in Nineteeth-Century Russia (Cambrige: Cambridge University Press, 1995), 9.

[55] Benjamin Nathans, Beyond the Pale: Jewish Encounter with Late Imperial Russia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2002), 201-202.

[56] Haberer, Jews and Revolution in Russia, 11.

[57] Ibid., 16, 17.

[58] Jones, Jewish Revolutionary Spirit, 581.

[59] Ibid.

[60] Ibid., 582.

[61] Ibid.

[62] Ibid., 584.

[63] MacDonald, Separation, 220.

[64] Jones, Jewish Revolutionary Spirit, 582-583.

[65] Ibid., 584.

[66] Jones, Jewish Revolutionary Spirit, 563-566.

[67] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 51-52.

[68] Quoted in Jones, Jewish Revolutionary Spirit, 565.

[69] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 51-52.

[70] Ibid., 54.

[71] Rigg, Hitler’s Jewish Soldiers, 70.

[72] Ibid., 66.

[73] Mayer, Why Did the Heavens Not Darken?, 48.

[74] Gordon, The “Jewish Question”, 66, 67.

[75] Ibid., 67.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Ibid., 68.

[78] Ibid.

[79] Ibid., 72.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Ibid., 73.

[82] E. Michael Jones has done a great work analyzing this in chapter 13 of his magnum opus The Jewish Revolutionary Spirit. I could not address all these issues here because time constraints.

[83] Winston Churchill, “Zionism vs. Bolshevism: The Struggle for the Soul of the Jewish People,” Sunday Illustrated Herald, February 8, 1920.

[84] Elizabeth Wurtzel, “Standing Against a Tide of Hatred,” Guardian, January 16, 2009.

[85] Benjamin Disraeli, Coningsby (Boston: Adamant Media Corporation, 2005), 299.

Comments Closed


  1. Its a sad thing when established communities accept the wedge that eventually separates their unity. Its wonderful when those who disagree with the wedge confront the evil that started it and completely ignore the lies no matter how frequently their told, and how loud their voices are. La Quennella to the manipulators.

  2. I think this is a mistake

    “When Moses Mendelssohn, a Jewish composer who (opportunistically) converted to Christianity, failed to put his musical talent to revolutionary use, Heine scolded him. He lamented to one of his friends in 1846,

    “I cannot forgive this man of independent means, because he sees fit to serve the Christian pietists with his great and enormous talent. The more I admire his greatness, the more angry I am to see it so iniquitously misused. If I had the good fortune to be Moses Mendelssohn’s grandson, I would not use my talents to set the piss of the Lamb to music.”[60]”

    So far as I know, Moses Mendelsohn was not a composer but a rabbi and intellectual. His grandson Felix Mendelsohn was a great composer. And who are you to say his conversion was done under false pretenses?

    • See my essay on bible code allusions to the nexus between NAZIsm and Zionism academia.edu/6572571/A_TORAH_PERSPECTIVE_ON_THE_HOLOCAUST_-_FINAL_3

  3. NAZI = national socialist ( Hitler) + Zionists ( Rothchild world bankers) = Elite Jews killing traditional Jews in the holocaust. And the result was Zionist Israel in 1947 all planned years in advance . The Zionist world bankers planned the civil war, WW1 ,WW2 and are now laying the false flags to start WW3.
    Zionist world bankers have created a new holocaust in Palestine today.

    Today Talmudic world banker Zionists Jews ( goldman sachs and the like ) think they can rape , pillage and steal from you and i as they will never be prosecuted by the goy per their Babylonian Talmud.
    No wonder Jesus called Talmudic Jews the children of Satan.

  4. Here’s an interesting German vet of WWI and II that I recently learned about through my readings in psychology, Karl Graf Dürckheim.

    “When it was discovered that he was of Jewish descent… and had therefore become “politically embarrassing”. Ribbentrop decided to create a special mission for him to become an envoy for the foreign ministry and write a research paper titled “exploring the intellectual foundations of Japanese education. In June 1938 he was sent to Japan, residing there until 1947”

    http //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Karlfried_Graf_D%C3%BCrckheim

  5. “Jewish historian Brian Mark Rigg “Numerous areas relating to the Holocaust and the Nazi era in general ”

    Correction Jewish historian Brian Mark Rigg “Numerous areas relating to the “alleged” Holocaust and the Nazi era in general.

    HOLOCAUST means Burnt offering. Historian David Irving confirmed by the administrator in Poland that the alleged Gas Chambers were built (After the War by Russia) Also the standing reward has never been collected for anyone to show that Hitler knew anything about what his lower in command was doing as proven by intercepted cables from the British who had broken the German enigma coding as well as the Aussie that had broken the Imperial Japanese code over a year in advance.

    Cables show it was Churchill that started WWII as Germany and Russia had already divided Poland.

    What’s important is why the said Jew’s are more important and how that 6 Million number was first in 1915 blamed on Russia but in 1938 blamed on Germany before the war ended and also during the HAAVARA AGREEMENT from 1933-1939 as Jew’s were deported in agreement to Palestine.
    SEE ****http //www.youtube.com/watch?v=NcXrKnaaJA0

    What of the many tens of thousands in Hamburg, Dresden, Japan, Vietnam, Iraq… Where is their “Survivors Pay?” as well as East Timor, Guatemala, Panama or 1,000,000 Iranian’s.

    View WWII photos and see the “Real Holocaust” as Allied bombings destroyed cities, rails, naval, food etc for the starvation to follow or the 1.7Mil German POWS starved to death.

    • Spielberg’s movie Shoah filmed alleged survivors testimony. What was omitted were the Jew’s talking about the Theaters, Bands and Grand Piano at Auschwitz. Propaganda was rife in WWII.

      Again, Historian David Irving who’s books triggered book stores being burned, smashed windows his own home as well as years of actual documented testimony from US and Allied pilots were confiscated or destroyed. How the lies of top German generals eating cyanide when in fact they were beaten to death. Actual diary entries from those and then back to the cables intercepted.

      The same questions comes of why is one peoples deaths greater then those of another? How the Soap, Lamp Shades were propaganda used to sway the public to get Catholic’s to kill Catholic’s. The same is used today. Russia massing 100,000 troops, Iraq massing at Kuwait’s borders. US always using Chemical’s as a SCARE yet they in Vietnam and 50 years later killed more with Napalm. Agent Orange and other GREEN Chemicals still killing Veteran’s and the defects in Vietnam today.

      All that’s missing in the Ukraine is Graham and McQaeda McCain holding vials of Anthrax up. Oh and what nationality are those Oligarchs in the Ukraine? As well as those wanting that Office in Kiev?

  6. During the Second World War the US government took the decision to arrest and intern all Japanese citizens and Americans of Japanese descent. They were all moved into internment camps and deprived of their liberty. It was done as a national safety measure – and to ensure that none of them could spy for Japan – or get up to any mischief. Although this is perhaps understandable these Japanese Americans had given no indication of their disloyalty to their new country – and many felt that they were treated unfairly.

    In 1930s Germany, however, the German government had EVERY reason to suspect that jews living in Germany were acting as a ‘fifth column’ in order to undermine their national efforts. Indeed – newspaper headlines across the world displayed world jewry’s declaration of WAR against Germany and its promise to bring war to – and destroy Germany’s economy. We do know that less than 30% of Germany’s internment camp inmates were jews – most were Gentiles. We also know that thousands of inmates died of typhus and starvation near to the end of the war – once the allies had cut off food supplies – and had shot up every road and every rail track.

    • We also know – from none other than General Patton himself, that one of his major problems was dealing with thousands upon thousands of jewish ‘DPs’ in Germany after the war. ‘DPs’ was the military term for ‘Displaced Persons’. Basically this meant they were jews from the camps who went through the German survivors looting, raping and killing innocent civilians as they went. This caused Patton a major headache. It is somewhat amazing that the highly efficient Germans – who had allegedly been so bent on murdering all the jews under their control over those years – had seemingly left so many of them alive at the end of the war.

      I am also reminded of the publication of a recent book with the name of (from memory) ‘The First Holocaust’. This work documents the false claims by prominent jews in New York and across the US (The letters were all published in major newspapers) after the FIRST WORLD WAR – claiming that “SIX MILLION JEWS” had been killed in the First war. It was quickly proven to be false by the European authorities in those days – but this bogus claim is naturally the origin of all holocaust cynicism.

  7. After WWII why did the foist the Zionists – for that is what they were – on the Arabs in Palestine? There was already a culture of Jews and Arabs living peaceably in Palestine for centuries, but , the British -“Perfidious Albion” – allowed what they knew would follow………..If the Jews were desperate for a ‘homeland’….surely defeated Germany had ample space to re-settle the few that were left after the 6 million holocaust?

    • There is much to history. While I would not pretend to answer for this brilliant author, you may find answers in research here in the archives or try William Cooper’s British Isrealism.

      https //www.youtube.com/watch?v=CqaJFn4Xgbs

  8. Thank you Jonas,

    your article gives the reader a nice overview of some historic facts which are unkown to the people in general. Much of what you wrote was told to me in great detail and length (including many written sources) when I talked to a former german officer who served in Norway and was captured by the british army at the end of WWII. He was the father of my then girlfriend and after his investigation by a jewish intelligence officer this man asked him

    “Who do you think, won the war?”

    The german officer – too frightened to gives his true answer – said nothing. Then the british officer said

    “The jews won the war and I think you know it.”

    I teached lots of jewish immigrants from 1992-2002 who mostly came from all parts of Russia, some from Ukraine. This was the only school in Hamburg were young students could get their Abitur with russian as second language, therefore there were many pupils from Russia.

    When talking to them about their live in Germany, they told that they missed the very tight relationship inside their old community, because in Germany the assimilation process already led many younger jews away from rabbinical judaism. This process, which can be observed here, is true for the whole country. One aspect of this you didn’t mention is that the more assimilated jews fear the upcoming concurrence by the immigrants. They speak of one generation (in their newsletters) when these eastern jews are also in higher positions.

    • “… they missed the very tight relationship inside their old community …”

      What was their community? Lubavich?

    • Stephan,

      of course, there were some Lubavicher among these students. But for the most part they were joung jews by birth and in no way religious. They shared the same reluctance to learn german as many other russian or slavic folks do. Many of them didn’t want to come to Germany, but their parents decided to leave Russia. This fact itself leads to a new kind of ghetto, which you can observe in many places where lots of Russians live.

      The german jewish organizations were and are very ancious and reserved against this huge immigration of eastern jews and they try to divert them into many areas in Germany, so they don’t get concurrents for their own business too quickly.

    • Interesting, but not surprising. Hell, I’ve lived in a foreign country and missed my “clan”, too. Besides, the art of self-pity is not exactly uncommon for the “tribe” in question.

  9. I’ve been visiting this site for quite some time now and enjoy it quite a bit but only just now finally registered for an account here just to say that I found this a very interesting and thought-provoking article and I’ll be keeping an eye out for the continuation of this in future articles. I keep an open mind about history and world events and such and don’t tend to totally believe one side or version over another because there are always going to be secrets kept from the public, and facts that don’t fit official narratives or don’t fit in some plan will be called lies enough for people to believe that. As they say, the winners are the ones that write history. (And the losers get called evil, or bad people, or just liars, if they try to tell their side of a story that far from fits te official narrative/story and mostly ignored by “historians”.) Kind of related (well at least to Nazis), I’ve tried telling people that they learned about and adopted eugenics and sterilization and euthanasia and other related topics directly from America and Hitler was even personally taught, for a lack of words, everything about the eugenics movement in the US by the wealthiest Americans who most if not all were ardent eugenicists and personally funded and supported and sent him booms on the subject and everything and existed in the US for decades before the Nazi party formed and was invented in America by wealthy Americans the previous century, but no one usually believes me.

    • Interestingly the first eugenic movement came from the social democrats in Europe roughly about 1900. This does not mean that the Malthusians from the british aristrocracy are one of the true inventors of this ideology, but the first political and ideological representation came through “left wingers”.

      In the US, we saw the same ideology rise in the late 20th and the 30th with also true deceptive campaigns, especially against blacks and poor people. It’s like a virus which always changes it’s surface to hide it’s malevolence.

      This historical fact is interesting, because there are attempts to revive these schemes today under newly invented deceptive names.

  10. There’s a pretty fascinating story at the end of the lecture by Riggs. He speaks of the US using the German Army to rescue Menachin Schneerson.

    For those who don’t know, Schneerson (and his followers) believe that the goyim are a different species, and that they are a lesser species.

    If there was one Jew on the face of the planet earth that the Germans should have wanted to holocaust, it would have been Schneerson. And yet they rescued him, instead.

    Doesn’t really fit.

  11. As always, excellent, well researched article.

    In response to this question “If Hitler’s goal was to annihilate an entire race, how is it possible that there were thousands upon thousands of people of Jewish descent in Nazi Germany?”

    This question should also be asked about the 800 Jews living in the Berlin Jewish hospital at the end of WWII. If Hitler intended to kill all the Jews, how is this possible? (Full Jews, not mischlinge)

    Additionally, one of Rigg’s claims is wrong. Some Germans of Jewish descent were permitted to serve as officers. Field Marshall Milch was one prominent officer.

    Hitler’s personal dietitian MArlene Exler, was Jewish. Some “holocaust”.

    • Sorry, it wasn’t Riggs who claimed Jews or half Jews were forbidden from serving as officers. It was Walter Laqueur.

  12. Jonas, excellent article addressing the Jewish Question of assimilation and emancipation, a major discourse in Europe’s societies following Enlightenment and into the Age of Revolutions. Also well documented is Jewish internal schism, a fact virtually non-existent in today’s dialog. What I found missing was Napoleon AND the Grand Sanhedrin 1806 (A summary here, original documents can be found by simple Internet search) who was supposed to answer the issues raised by Napoleon and relate them to the future status of the Jews. Their findings may be of use also today.
    Among the conclusions listed in the group’s report were
    -Polygamy is forbidden to Israelites;
    -Divorce by Jewish law is valid only after previous decision of civil authorities;
    -The religious act of marriage must be preceded by a civil contract;
    -Marriages between Israelites and Christians are binding, although they can not be celebrated with religious forms;
    -Every Israelite is religiously bound to consider non-Jewish fellow citizens as brothers, and to aid, protect, and love them as though they were co-religionists;
    -The Israelite is required to consider the land of his birth or adoption as his fatherland, and shall love and defend it when called upon;
    -Judaism does not forbid any kind of handicraft or occupation;
    -It is commendable for Israelites to engage in agriculture, manual labor, and the arts, as their ancestors in Palestine were wont to do;
    -Israelites are forbidden to exact usury from Jew or Christian.

    • yea, I assume these findings occurred in 1806 and the problem is the influential group that is willing to say and promise things knowing that in his beliefs, because he is promising something to gentiles, who are the enemy, he is not bound

    • Joseph,

      I guess you talk about the Sanhedrin, which was called by Napoleon. At that time, the Sanhadrin had it’s center already moved to Poland, the heart of the talmudic jewish tradition.

  13. Jonas your work is always comprehensive with full documentation—I applaud you. Is there a connection with the move of the BIS from Munich to Basil? Was there a rift in the Jewish population regarding the politics of Zionism or banking that is not spoken about?

    • I don’t know if there is “a connection with the move of the BIS from Munich to Basil.” With respect to the second question, I would recommend Edwin Black’s The Transfer Agreement, which has some truth in its details. Also, Norman Finkelstein goes into great detail about the politics of bankers and how the “guardians of Holocaust memory” tried to exploit what happened in his book The Holocaust Industry.

    • Amazing work. Thank you Jonas. I was wondering if you knew anything about the play “The Deputy” by Rolf Hochhuth? Pope Pius XII saved thousands of Jews during the war and was applauded by many included Golda Meir. Then this play was produced and overnight he became a Nazi collaborator. I tried to track down the background to the play during my few leisure moments but didn’t get far though I do remember some of his friends were sexual deviants. I believe this is a story waiting to be told or at least investigated.

      Thanks again for your excellent work. I’m learning a lot.

    • Hey Petra,

      For a good background of this issue, see E. Michael Jones’ The Jewish Revolutionary Spirit and Its Impact on World History. It is worth every piece of dime. Thanks.

    • No, Basilian,

      this has only to do with the fact that in Switzerland most of the old banks were founded by former templars and their followers. Look into the history of Zurich for instance, especially when it got his special city rights.

Comments are closed.