[Editor’s note: This article was originally published in May 2015. We are re-publishing it today as it remains highly significant and with the current extremely high level of tension in the region, perhaps more significant now than ever. Ian]
By now, every VT reader will be aware that Israel dropped a neutron bomb on Yemen on behalf of their Saudi allies. As well as the readers of VT, a billion Arabs also know this truth, every Arabic media outlet picked up the VT story as have the Russian outlets Pravda, Russia Today and Sputnik News. This story is too big to die, it is worldwide.
Israel nuked Yemen, period. This is hard fact that has been 100% confirmed.
Just watch the video, the scintillating pixels are caused by particles from the nuclear explosion hitting the camera’s sensor, there can be no other explanation; note the white hot ball of plasma seen briefly before the huge detonation.
The camera never lies
Until mobile phones with cameras and small video cameras were developed, small florescent lights were used as emergency nuclear explosion/radiation detectors. Now, phones and CCD video cameras have become dependable “slam dunk” nuclear detectors.
The next few words are the technical explanation of why we are absolutely certain we are dealing with a nuclear event, with no questions whatsoever. This is information available to all member of the press, the military, the scientific community and the general public. This means, of course, that anyone in “denial” of our assertion, proven with this much certainty, is defective as to mental function or suffers from moral degeneracy.
The combination of the cameras plastic lens and the photoelectric effect produced in the cameras CCD pick up chip (because it is basically a very large array of photo diodes) allows them to act as very good detectors of high level ionizing radiation. Low level radiation in this case is not of concern because it will not immediately kill you or have long term negative health effects.
By simply pointing the camera at an explosive event it will immediately determine if it is nuclear or not. When the camera’s CCD pick up chip is overloaded by excess radiation it will pixelize showing white sparkles all over the picture of the fireball or blast image area.
The demonstration video still was taken in Yemen this month. It is perhaps the best single demonstration image of ionizing radiation hitting a CCD receptor. It is as perfect a demonstration of a nuclear explosion as detected using mobile phone or CCD camera technology, as explained above, as might be possible.
We are contacting scientists and physicists throughout the Middle east and Ukraine; we are distributing software that will allow us to detect not just nuclear weapons but radioactive threats of all kinds including polonium poisons; we are training teams to collect soil samples; preparing packages to allow medical personnel to screen for radioactive poisoning and we are offering materials for civil defence and decontamination efforts.
There has thus far been zero denial or refutation (other than by wingnuts and conspiracy theorists) of this having been a nuclear event nor has there been any effective denial of the pair of F-16A/Bs shot down over Yemen this week; planes which can only have belonged to Italy, Portugal or Israel, otherwise it came out of the mothballed stockpiles in the US southwest.
Russia speaks out
As stated in Pravda today, the world’s scientific community is aghast that ‘the Saudis have begun to wipe Yemen off the map’, they get straight to the point by telling us that ‘shocking video reveals proton bombardment from a neutron bomb’ and that ‘forbidden strikes have brought about a storm of worldwide protest’ and might I add, this wave of protest isn’t going to be silenced by a handful of internet trolls and unemployed Haifa housewives.
‘Obama has recently offered military assistance to any external threat the rich Arab Gulf States may face’ according to Pravda. Russia is not only certain after viewing the evidence, that this is a nuclear attack but they believe that the United States is fully complicit in it; where other sources have cited the Israeli-Saudi nexus, highest level Russian sources believe this irresponsible move is the result of Washington kow-towing to both Saudi Arabia and The Gulf States.
It is too late to put the cat back in the box, the word is out – Israel is using nukes to kill innocent civilians.
Take note of the reaction to this very serious issue of the Israeli use of nukes. Anyone who tries to claim there was no nuke dropped on Yemen or apply a derogatory label to those who seek to get the truth about this most heinous of war crimes out to a wide audience must be viewed as a stooge for Israel.
The worldwide spread of the true story of Israel’s nuking of Yemen has got the perpetrators very worried; the truth is one of the things these people fear most.
A scintillator is a material that exhibits scintillation — the property of luminescence when excited by ionizing radiation. Luminescent materials, when struck by an incoming particle, absorb its energy and scintillate, (i.e., re-emit the absorbed energy in the form of light). Sometimes, the excited state is metastable, so the relaxation back down from the excited state to lower states is delayed (necessitating anywhere from a few nanoseconds to hours depending on the material): the process then corresponds to either one of two phenomena, depending on the type of transition and hence the wavelength of the emitted optical photon: delayed fluorescence or phosphorescence, also called after-glow.
A scintillation detector or scintillation counter is obtained when a scintillator is coupled to an electronic light sensor such as a photomultiplier tube (PMT), photo-diode, or silicon photomultiplier. PMT’s absorb the light emitted by the scintillator and re-emit it in the form of electrons via the photoelectric effect. The subsequent multiplication of those electrons (sometimes called photo-electrons) results in an electrical pulse which can then be analyzed and yield meaningful information about the particle that originally struck the scintillator. Vacuum photo-diodes are similar but do not amplify the signal while silicon photo-diodes, (CCD cameras) on the other hand, detect incoming photons by the excitation of charge carriers directly in the silicon. Silicon photo-multipliers consist of an array of photo-diodes which are reverse-biased with sufficient voltage to operate in avalanche mode, enabling each pixel of the array to be sensitive to single photons.
The first device which used a scintillator was built in 1903 by Sir William Crookes and used a ZnS screen.The scintillations produced by the screen were visible to the naked eye if viewed by a microscope in a darkened room; the device was known as a spinthariscope. The technique led to a number of important discoveries. Scintillators gained additional attention in 1944, when Curran and Baker replaced the naked eye measurement with the newly developed PMT. This was the birth of the modern scintillation detector.
Applications for scintillators
Scintillators are used by the American government as Homeland Security radiation detectors. Scintillators can also be used in neutron and high energy particle physics experiments, X-ray security, nuclear cameras, computed tomography and gas exploration. Other applications of scintillators include CT scanners and gamma cameras in medical diagnostics, and screens in older style CRT computer monitors and television sets.
The use of a scintillator in conjunction with a photomultiplier tube or a CCD camera finds wide use in hand-held survey meters used for detecting and measuring radioactive contamination and monitoring nuclear material. Scintillators generate light in fluorescent tubes, to convert the ultra-violet of the discharge into visible light. Scintillation detectors are also used in the petroleum industry as detectors for Gamma Ray logs. ( Note small compact fluorescent light bulbs can also be used in an emergency to detect radiation bursts from a nuclear event. They will flash or glow under radiation exposure).
Plastic scintillators and the CCD camera, cell phone connection.
Plastic scintillators are the most common type of radiation detectors found in everyday CCD video cameras, cell phone cameras and home security cameras. With little or no modification at all they can be used as simple radiation detectors for emergency self protection from nuclear blasts and high background radiation levels or to document nuclear detonations. The combination of the cameras plastic lens and the photoelectric effect produced in the cameras CCD pick up chip (because it is basically a very large array of photo didoes) allows them to act as very good detectors of high level ionizing radiation. Low level radiation in this case is not of concern because it will not immediately kill you or have long term negative health effects.
By simply pointing the camera at an explosive event it will immediately determine if it is nuclear or not. When the cameras CCD pick up chip is overloaded by excess radiation it will pixelize showing white sparkles all over the picture of the fireball or blast image area. If you are looking to protect yourself from high level ionizing radiation produced by depleted uranium anti tank rounds or after a nuclear blast this will work. For lower level radiation effects usually just putting black electrical tape over the cameras lens is sufficient enough to detect lower radiation levels. Once the background radiation level has drooped off after an explosion. Usually after about 3 hours or more excluding ground zero where levels will remain higher for a longer period of time the CCD cameras may not be sensitive enough to detect these lower levels of radiation and a better detector will be required. However for emergency use this this process altho crude will work.
If you have an Android or Apple smart phone there are several APPS that will allow you to use your phone as a simple radiation detector/ Geiger counter. Some work better than others and several are actually fake or toy apps so user be ware make sure the APP really works.
Types of scintillators
The term “plastic scintillator” typically refers to a scintillating material in which the primary fluorescent emitter, called a fluor, is suspended in the base, a solid polymer matrix. While this combination is typically accomplished through the dissolution of the fluor prior to bulk polymerization, the fluor is sometimes associated with the polymer directly, either covalently or through coordination, as is the case with many Li6 plastic scintillators.
Polyethylene naphthalate has been found to exhibit scintillation by itself without any additives and is expected to replace existing plastic scintillators due to higher performance and lower price.
The advantages of plastic scintillators include fairly high light output and a relatively quick signal, with a decay time of 2–4 nanoseconds, but perhaps the biggest advantage of plastic scintillators is their ability to be shaped, through the use of molds or other means, into almost any desired form with what is often a high degree of durability. Plastic scintillators are known to show light output saturation when the energy density is large ( Birks’ Law).
The most common bases are the aromatic plastics, polymers with aromatic rings as pendant groups along the polymer backbone, amongst which polyvinyltoluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) are the most prominent. While the base does fluoresce in the presence of ionizing radiation, its low yield and negligible transparency to its own emission make the use of fluors necessary in the construction of a practical scintillator.
Aside from the aromatic plastics, the most common base is polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), which carries two advantages over many other bases: high ultraviolet and visible light transparency and mechanical properties and higher durability with respect to brittleness.
The lack of fluorescence associated with PMMA is often compensated through the addition of an aromatic co-solvent, usually naphthalene. A plastic scintillator based on PMMA in this way boasts transparency to its own radiation, helping to ensure uniform collection of light. Other common bases include polyvinyl xylene (PVX) polymethyl, 2,4-dimethyl, 2,4,5-trimethyl styrenes, polyvinyl diphenyl, polyvinyl naphthalene, polyvinyl tetrahydronaphthalene, and copolymers of these and other bases.
Also known as luminophors, these compounds absorb the scintillation of the base and then emit at larger wavelength, effectively converting the ultraviolet radiation of the base into the more easily transferred visible light. Further increasing the attenuation length can be accomplished through the addition of a second fluor, referred to as a spectrum shifter or converter, often resulting in the emission of blue or green light.
Gaseous scintillators consist of nitrogen and the noble gases helium, argon, krypton, and xenon, with helium and xenon receiving the most attention. The scintillation process is due to the de-excitation of single atoms excited by the passage of an incoming particle. This de-excitation is very rapid (~1 ns), so the detector response is quite fast.
Coating the walls of the container with a wavelength shifter is generally necessary as those gases typically emit in the ultraviolet and PMTs respond better to the visible blue-green region. In nuclear physics, gaseous detectors have been used to detect fission fragments or heavy charged particles.
The most common glass scintillators are cerium-activated lithium or boron silicates. Since both lithium and boron have large neutron cross-sections, glass detectors are particularly well suited to the detection of thermal (slow) neutrons. Lithium is more widely used than boron since it has a greater energy release on capturing a neutron and therefore greater light output.
Glass scintillators are however sensitive to electrons and γ rays as well (pulse height discrimination can be used for particle identification). Being very robust, they are also well-suited to harsh environmental conditions. Their response time is ≈10 ns, their light output is however low, typically ≈30% of that of anthracene.
Response to various radiations
- the very high ionizing power of heavy ions induces quenching effects which result in a reduced light output (e.g. for equal energies, a proton will produce 1/4 to 1/2 the light of an electron, while alphas will produce only about 1/10 the light;
- the high dE/dx also results in a reduction of the fast component relative to the slow component, increasing detector dead-time;
- strong non-linearities are observed in the detector response especially at lower energies.
The reduction in light output is stronger for organics than for inorganic crystals. Therefore, where needed, inorganic crystals, e.g. CsI(Tl), ZnS(Ag) (typically used in thin sheets as α-particle monitors), CaF2(Eu), should be preferred to organic materials. Typical applications are α-survey instruments, dosimetry instruments, and heavy ion dE/dx detectors. Gaseous scintillators have also been used in nuclear physics experiments.
The detection efficiency for electrons is essentially 100% for most scintillators. But because electrons can make large angle scatterings (sometimes backscatterings), they can exit the detector without depositing their full energy in it. The back-scattering is a rapidly increasing function of the atomic number Z of the scintillator material.
Organic scintillators, having a lower Z than inorganic crystals, are therefore best suited for the detection of low-energy (< 10 MeV) beta particles. The situation is different for high energy electrons: since they mostly lose their energy by bremsstrahlung at the higher energies, a higher-Z material is better suited for the detection of the bremsstrahlung photon and the production of the electromagnetic shower which it can induce.
High-Z materials, e.g. inorganic crystals, are best suited for the detection of gamma rays. The three basic ways that a gamma ray interacts with matter are: the photoelectric effect, Compton scattering, and pair production. The photon is completely absorbed in photoelectric effect and pair production, while only partial energy is deposited in any given Compton scattering.
The cross section for the photoelectric process is proportional to Z5, that for pair production proportional to Z2, whereas Compton scattering goes roughly asZ. A high-Z material therefore favors the former two processes, enabling the detection of the full energy of the gamma ray.
Since the neutron is not charged it does not interact via the Coulomb force and therefore does not ionize the scintillation material. It must first transfer some or all of its energy via the strong force to a charged atomic nucleus. The positively charged nucleus then produces ionization. Fast neutrons (generally >0.5 MeV) primarily rely on the recoil proton in (n,p) reactions; materials rich in hydrogen, e.g. plastic scintillators, are therefore best suited for their detection.
Slow neutrons rely on nuclear reactions such as the (n,γ) or (n,α) reactions, to produce ionization. Their mean free path is therefore quite large unless the scintillator material contains nuclides having a high cross section for these nuclear reactions such as 6Li or 10B. Materials such as LiI(Eu) or glass silicates are therefore particularly well-suited for the detection of slow (thermal) neutrons.