… from Sputnik News, Moscow
[ Editor’s Note: Finally we have the release of the full ceasefire agreement, which generally tells us what we already knew — that the US fumbled the deal because its jihadis felt the Gulf States and Turks would keep supplying them to fight Assad.
For the US to have run a bombing mission to Deir Ezzor against the Syrians when the ceasefire started to come unraveled on day one — when the opposition forces that were entwined with al-Nusra had no intention of separating themselves — was a blunder that runs off the scale.
The US should be liable for direct compensation for the dead or wounded Syrian soldiers, due to either its incompetence or breach of trust. Instead, we saw the US “double down” on the aid convoy attack that was blamed on the Russians a bit too instantly, when the only initial source was an opposition group.
We will certainly be learning more about what really happened, but for now, the battle for Aleppo was cranked up a notch today with the Syrian Arab Army’s main attack on the jihadis’ Eastern flank after several days of preliminary flank attacks to get them spread thinly along a large circumference front line… Jim W. Dean ]
– First published … September 27, 2016 –
Moscow made public the full text of the Russia-US deal on Syria, the Russian Foreign Ministry announced on Tuesday. The text of the agreement was published on the site of the Russian Foreign Ministry.
According to the Russia-US deal on Syria, force can be used for self-defense during the ceasefire, while airstrikes use of mortars and rockets, as well as the capture of territory is prohibited.
The main priority in Syria, according to the document, is the demarcation of territory controlled by Daesh and al-Nusra Front terrorist groups and territories controlled by Syrian rebels. Russia and the US can exit the deal on Syria if it is not implemented, according to the text of the agreement. “Every side reserves the right to exit the deal if it believes that its provisions are not implemented.”
All Syrians, including members of armed opposition, can leave Aleppo via Castello road, according to the deal. Neither Syrian army, nor the rebels are allowed to occupy new territory, controlled by the other side. The deal also stipulates areas where the Syrian Air Force will not conduct combat missions. Commenting on the release of the document, the foreign ministry said that it had proposed to make the document public, however, Washington refused to do so.
The move caused “some questions about whether the US is sincere or not.” “The unwillingness [of the US] to publicly confirm their commitment to separate opposition from al-Nusra Front, al-Qaeda’s affiliate in Syria, and jointly conduct strikes against terrorists and their partners in crime who did not cease hostilities called for special attention.”
Moscow urged Washington to make public the mandate of the joint center on the coordination of airstrikes against terrorists in Syria and the agreement on the monitoring of a road to Aleppo.
“Washington assured us in February — seven months ago — that they will apply maximum effort to extract opposition forces of the Syrian opposition it has control over. However, in practice this did not happen, which allowed jihadists to use ‘moderate’ opposition groups like a shield while continuing their bloody attacks in hope of impunity.”
The Russian Foreign Ministry yet again urged the US to fulfill its promise and separate “moderate” Syrian rebels and al-Nusra Front as “many rebel groups Washington considers “moderate” are fighting together with al-Nusra Front and even merged with it.”
“We repeat that the policy of connivance toward terrorists causes troubles,” the ministry emphasized.
On September 9, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov and US Secretary of State John Kerry announced a new plan on Syria, which stipulates a ceasefire that came into force on September 12. However, the cessation of hostilities was declared ineffective because of numerous violations of the ceasefire by Syrian rebels.
Full Syrian Ceasefire Agreement
Standard conditions and procedures necessary to ensure the cessation of hostilities
The Russian Federation and the United States as co-chairs of the International Support Group Syria (MTT), in accordance with the provisions of the Joint Statement on the cessation of hostilities in Syria on February 22, 2016 indicated the contact person, and determine the order of interaction between Russia and the US to promote respect and mode control the cessation of hostilities (RPBD) in Syria.
1. To carry out the exchange of information, as well as to facilitate the de-escalation of tension between the parties in order to further the cessation of hostilities on the territory of Syria, Russia and the United States created a “hot” link to simplify the process of rapid exchange of information.
2. In the event of a breach or possible breach RPBD conditions, including the resumption of fighting one of the parties involved in RPBD in respect of the other hand, is also involved in RPBD, using all kinds of weapons (including small arms, mortars, artillery, anti-tank guided missiles and air strikes), the Russian Federation and the United States will be guided by the provisions of the International Task Force, the Syrian support group compliance RPBD (STF RPBD MTT), as well as the following standard procedures to ensure RPBD.
3. The competent authorities shall without delay request all necessary additional information from the party or parties who are suspected of violating RPBD to MTT Co-Chairs had the opportunity to assess the nature and extent of the alleged violation, as well as the extent provided by this breach of the potential threat RPBD compliance. Russia and the United States, respectively, have to provide the maximum possible completeness and objectivity of the information received on this alleged incident and the intention of the party / parties to comply with the terms RPBD.
4. The competent authorities shall, jointly or independently, to determine the circumstances RPBD violations documented findings and, if necessary, take steps to collect more information.
5. The competent authorities shall immediately inform each other of the measures and necessary actions taken to prevent further violations and exceptions escalate the tension and to take all available measures do not force nature to restore compliance RPBD.
6. In accordance with the Joint Statement with military force can be applied proportional to the purpose of self-defense RPBD parties. Any party involved in RPBD that use military force against the other party to the RPBD must notify the authorized body, co-chairs of the STF RPBD MTT and / or the Special Envoy of the UN Secretary-General on Syria on the circumstances connected with the use of military force.
7. In the event that Russia or the United States resorted to the use of military force against terrorist groups excluded from RPBD in geographical areas that are in close proximity to the parties involved in RPBD, the party resorted to the use of military force, notify the other party and Special envoy of the UN Secretary General about the circumstances related to the use of military force, and on measures taken to prevent attacks against the parties involved in RPBD.
8. In the interest of obtaining relevant information about actual or potential violations of RPBD The competent authorities and co-chairs the STF RPBD MTT may request information from the parties and the Office of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Syria, and may also request information from other members of the MTT. Additionally, but not required, can be considered the publication in the media, including social media and other open sources of information available through commercial resources.
9. In the event of disagreement between the parties regarding their involvement in a specific violation of a priority in their resolution should be the interaction between the authorized body and the co-chairs of the STF RPBD MTT. Furthermore, Notified Bodies and co-chairs the STF RPBD MTT can be shared with the representatives of the Special Representative of the Secretary-General of the UN on Syria and other members of the MTT take these differences settlement measures through further investigation and bringing to it stakeholders.
10. In case the co-chairs of the STF RPBD MTT in coordination with STF RPBD determine that the deletion of the part RPBD and depriving the protection granted to it justified the systematic failure to comply with conditions RPBD, they immediately send the recommendation of the Co-Chairs MTT at the ministerial level to take appropriate measures in accordance with the Joint statement.
11. The Co-Chairs of the STF RPBD MTT on a regular basis will be sent to the MTT consistent information on compliance by the parties RPBD. This procedure will be carried out through the Office of the Special Representative of the UN Secretary-General on Syria, acting as the secretariat.
12. Kontrol of compliance with the conditions of the cessation of hostilities must be carried out fairly and openly with broad media coverage.
Joint document from 15.07.2016, thePractical approach to US-Russian efforts in the fight against LIH and “Dzhabhat en-Nusra” and strengthening of the cessation of hostilities
Underwritten aims to promote a political settlement of the Syrian conflict, as well as the fact, to allow the US and Russia to work together in the interests of destruction “Dzhabhat en-Nusra” (DAN) and LIH, including overlapping flow of insurgents, weapons and funding through the Syrian border, in the context of strengthening of the cessation of hostilities (RPBD) RPBD with all parties, to comply with its conditions.
Delimitation of territories controlled by the LIH, DAN and the forces of the moderate opposition, remains a priority, as well as the separation of the moderate opposition forces from DAN.
DAN LIH, and you must deny safe haven to the whole territory of Syria.
1) Russia and the United States are stepping up their efforts to ensure full compliance with the immediate RPBD according to a joint US-Russian statement on February 22, 2016 “Terms of the cessation of hostilities in Syria.”
2) Russia and the United States as soon as possible complete the overall map specific areas. These areas include the territory dominated by the opposition, areas with a high concentration DAN formations, as well as areas dominated by the opposition, with some possible presence of DAN. Technical experts from Russia and the United States will cause the geographical coordinates of these special areas.
3) In the context of strengthening RPBD to provide a period of reduced violence, in accordance with the aspirations of Russia and the United States, the United States and Russia will create a Joint Executive Centre (JRC), which will include experts on the subject and Syrian specialists in identifying goals. JRC should be deployed by mutual agreement.
4) The JRC should carry out tasks listed below in the following order:
a) the exchange of intelligence information and the definition of targets for military action against DAN in specific areas. Such information should include leaderboards DAN coordinates the location of training camps of militants DAN, weapons depots, ammunition and material resources, administration, areas of concentration of personnel, weapons and military equipment, as well as supply routes and other purposes relating to DAN.
b) determining the list of targets for air strikes VKS Russia and / or the US Air Force, relating to the activities of DAN.
c) after the approval of the initial list of objectives, the date set for when VKS Russia and / or the US Air Force will start strikes to the agreed objectives DAN. At the same time all of the Air Operation Syria using both aircraft and helicopters will be discontinued in these areas, with appropriate exceptions for the agreed non-combat tasks such as medical evacuation, rehabilitation of victims and other humanitarian supplies agreed non-combat tasks.
d) the Syrian military can conduct air operations against DAN outside special areas.
e) In case of violation of the terms of this document or RPBD, the US or Russia could suspend its participation in the JRC.
5) The process of determining goals through the application of the JRC and airstrikes by DAN forces VKS Russia and the United States Air Force will be constant and continuous. As part of the JRC should be carried out exchange of information on the effectiveness of targeting DAN and the development of the situation on the ground.
6) With the exception of the immediate threats to Russia or the United States, when prior approval can not be objective, Russia and the United States can only act against DAN objects that have been agreed in advance and in accordance with the procedures through existing military channels to prevent incidents.
7) The JRC will also work to build up the most independent, but synchronized effort against LIH.
8) All of the above efforts will be conducted in accordance with international humanitarian law and in full compliance RPBD.
9) The JRC will develop mechanisms for monitoring the effectiveness and to ensure the full implementation of the above provisions.
10) Modalities JRC activities and the implementation of the above steps will be determined in the course of bilateral negotiations, which will begin on Tuesday-Wednesday next week and will be completed within 5-7 days.
11) The steps above should be seen as steps toward a fuller understanding between the US and Russia on three interrelated issues, aimed at the safe end of the conflict and destruction and DAN LIH:
a) military cooperation and intelligence line between Russia and the United States to defeat and DAN LIH;
b) Translation RPBD in a long-term cease-fire throughout the territory of Syria;
c) political transition in Syria in accordance with resolution 2254 of the UN Security Council. US and Russian Recommend Offer Special Representative of the Secretary General of the UN on Syria as a starting point for further negotiations of an inclusive group of participants mezhsiriyskogo dialogue and will encourage their constructive and positive work.
It agreed in Geneva, September 9, 2016
Reducing the level of violence, restoration of access and the creation of SIG
The Russian Federation and the United States (hereinafter – Parties) are going to take joint efforts to stabilize the situation in Syria by taking special measures in the area of Aleppo. The main priority is the delineation of territories under the control of LIH, “Dzhabhat en-Nusra” and the moderate opposition, as well as the separation of the moderate opposition groups and “Dzhabhat al-Nusra.”
Parties shall appoint the date and time following entry into force of the measures (the day “D”).
On the day of the “D” for a period of 48 hours, all participants of the cessation of hostilities (RPBD) in Syria restore RPBD and will fully comply with the terms RPBD, as outlined in “Joint Statement of the Russian Federation and the United States” of 22 February 2016. Specifically:
termination of the application of air strikes, missiles, mortars and anti-tank guided missiles;
the rejection of the acquisition of territory and the desire to seize the territory occupied by the other parties to the ceasefire;
granting humanitarian organizations access to areas under the operational control RPBD participants, as well as creating conditions for immediate humanitarian aid has been delivered to all in need;
commensurate use of force in the second order in self-defense.
The parties agree and notify the parties of the date and time of occurrence of the day “D”.
The day “D + 2” if RPBD conditions in Syria continue to be met and the parties will be satisfied with its implementation, they will prolong RPBD for an agreed period of time. Later on the same basis as the Party may decide on the indefinite nature RPBD. The Parties shall use their influence on the parties to fully comply with their RPBD conditions.
Special measures will be introduced on the road, “Castello” (according to the agreed coordinates), in particular:
Starting from the “D” and to deploy checkpoints on the road, “Castello” humanitarian aid will be delivered to
g.Aleppo in accordance with the provisions RPBD UN procedures, as well as in coordination with the authorized representatives of the United Nations. The monitoring mission of the United Nations (MMOON) deployed on the Turkish border, continue checking and sealing of trucks intended for the delivery of humanitarian assistance along the way, “Castello” in the eastern part of the city of Aleppo. The integrity of the seals will not be violated, and trucks will not be opened by any authorities, between the point of verification and sealing in Turkey and the point of unloading at the UN warehouses and its partner organizations in the eastern and western parts of the city of Aleppo.
The Syrian Red Crescent Society (SRCS) (or another agreed third party) as soon as possible, will begin work on the two CAT (at agreed locations) to confirm that, before issuing CPR UNOPS in accordance with the way described in this same section less traffic on the road is carried out only proven MMOON trucks, and the integrity of the seal is not broken.Small units of no more than 20 armed men on each shift, which is allocated by the government and opposition forces, as well as being equally acceptable to them, will ensure the safety of SRCS staff at the checkpoint in the western and eastern ends of the road “Castello”.
The UN will monitor (via physical presence or remote) the activities of all personnel at the checkpoint. Checkpoints, where SACB and involved staff ensured his physical safety will be transferred under the management of an independent international staff of the UN Office for Project Services (or another agreed third party) as soon as possible.
PPC, under international control, will provide a phased unimpeded movement of humanitarian, commercial and civilian traffic on the road, “Castello”, as well as non-use of the roads for the transportation of weapons (in accordance with procedures to be developed in the future). Phased traffic will begin as soon as possible when the personnel responsible for the work of the CPT, in coordination with the UN and the Parties determines that sufficient opportunities for the safe and orderly traffic.
At the same time with the deployment outlined in paragraph 3b SACB PPC or other agreed third party, the pro-government forces and moderate opposition groups simultaneously depart from the road, “Castello”, thereby creating a demilitarized zone.
In particular, pro-government forces:
Shall bring heavy weapons such as armored vehicles and infantry fighting vehicles (other than the BTR-60 and BMP-1 without ATGM), tanks, artillery and mortars, over a distance of 3500 meters north
from the road;
Shall bring heavy machine guns, BTR-60 and BMP-1 without ATGM at a distance of 2,500 meters to the north of the road;
Will be allocated the entire personnel, armed with small arms and machine guns, except for the personnel of the two observation posts, at a distance of 1,000 meters to the north from the road;
Will be allocated the entire personnel and weapons at a distance 500 meters south of the road;
Install no more than two observation posts at a distance not less than 500 meters north of the road, “Castello”.
Location posts will be agreed between the parties, taking into account the characteristics of the terrain (the staff of no more than 15 people with small arms for self-defense and surveillance facilities);
Will not interfere with the movement of humanitarian, civil and commercial vehicles on the road, “Castello”;
There are not to occupy the areas left by the opposition groups, or to equip the position in the demilitarized zone,
except for the observation posts.
Opposition groups at the same time take the following steps:
At the eastern end of the road “Castello” in accordance agreed with the card (to be specified), the opposition will act depending on the action of the Kurdish militia troops.If the Kurds will remain in place to the north of the road, “Castello”, the opposition will remain in their positions. If the Kurds retreat 500 meters south of the road, “Castello” then that zone can be considered demilitarized, and opposition groups will depart at 500 meters to the north of the road, “Castello”;
In the western end of the “Castello” road (at the contact line, passing to the north of the trade “Castello” center) withdrawing the opposition forces will be similar to the withdrawal of pro-government forces.
The formation of the opposition, are squared 31/15 (map Russian side) in the area north of “Castello” shopping center, would be taken armored vehicles and infantry fighting vehicles (other than the BTR-60 and BMP-1 without ATGM), tanks, artillery mortars and 3,000 meters, heavy machine guns, BTR-60, BMP-1 without ATGM – 2500 meters, and the staff of small arms or light machine guns – at a distance of 1000 meters north of the road, “Castello”.
On the stretch of road from the shopping center “Castello” until the roundabout Layramun opposition groups will be allocated personnel and weapons to a distance of 500 meters north of the road, “Castello”, which will mirror the answer to the withdrawal of pro-government forces to a distance of 500 meters south of the road “Castello “between these points;
Opposition groups will not impede the movement of humanitarian, civil and commercial vehicles on the road, “Castello”
Opposition forces would not occupy the areas left by pro-government forces, or equip items
in the demilitarized zone, except for the observation posts;
Opposition groups will make every effort to prevent forces “Dzhabhat en-Nusra” in the demilitarized zone with the adjacent areas under the control of opposition groups.
All Syrians, including militant opposition groups with weapons, can leave the city of Aleppo on the road, “Castello”, knowing that they will suffer no harm, and they can go in any direction. Militants fleeing Aleppo weapons must coordinate in advance with the representatives of UN terms the use of “Castello” road, as well as the amount of output of personnel, weapons and military equipment. In addition, there is no harm to civilians and the formation of the opposition, decided to stay in the city of Aleppo and comply with the terms RPBD.
These violations of the demilitarized zone by any of the participants will be sent to the Russian Federation and the United States. In the case of penetration into the demilitarized zone of the militants’ Dzhabhat
Al-Nusra “after the establishment of SIG, the United States and Russia will act
in accordance with the mandate of SIG.
On the day “D” as pro-government forces and opposition groups that are in the area Ramos, provide safe, unimpeded and sustained humanitarian access to the eastern and western parts of the city of Aleppo. They will also assist in the smooth movement of all commercial and civilian traffic on the road to Khan Tuman passing through Ramus, in coordination with the UN and create a monitoring mechanism, to be agreed by the Parties and the United Nations as soon as possible to ensure continued access.
For this purpose no later than the fourth day since the “D” will be held the meeting of the Parties to the expert groups and the UN. Delivery of humanitarian aid will be in accordance with the provisions established by the UN RPBD and procedures, as well as in coordination with the authorized representatives of the United Nations.
No opposition groups or pro-government forces will not take attacks within the boundaries of the area indicated on the attached map, in accordance with its geographic coordinates (hereinafter – the “District”). No opposition groups or pro-government forces will not attempt to take in the “area” new territory, controlled by the other party.
4. The Parties confirm to each other that the Syrian Government
and opposition groups agree to abide by the provisions of the Mandate SIG, including the agreed areas (geographical coordinates are determined by the Parties), which will not apply the Syrian air force, with the exception of non-combat missions coordinated, and where the parties will develop goals to counter “Dzhabhat al-Nusra.”
5. The parties announced the creation of ICS on the basis of a mandate SIG
and areas agreed by the Parties, after both parties will be satisfied with the implementation of the measures referred to in paragraphs 1-4 (except for deployment PPC service of the UN Office for Project Services and the relevant humanitarian movement, commercial and civil transport and the organization of the monitoring mechanism referred to in paragraph 3f ), for a minimum of seven days of continuous compliance RPBD conditions.
• Starting with the day “D” Parties will start the preparatory work for the establishment of the JRC. This training will include an initial discussion and the exchange of information needed to distinguish between the territories controlled by DAN and opposition groups in areas of intense fighting to eventually come out on the functioning of the JRC. A more comprehensive process of demarcation will be carried out by experts from the inception of the JRC. Preparation for the establishment of the JRC will also include: the selection of suitable temporary and long-term facilities for accommodation; definition of necessary working procedures consistent with already agreed mandate; determining the need for mutually agreed adjustments already agreed map of areas that need to be made in accordance with the changes “on the ground” so that the JRC could be fully operational at the end of a seven-day continuous compliance RPBD conditions of access in the city of Aleppo, in accordance with the provisions of this agreement.
• In the period between the day “D” and the establishment of the JRC, each Party shall determine the validity of data for targeting and DAN LIH, in order to be able to share them so that the strikes could begin on the day of the creation of the JRC.Along with Russian and American strikes against the agreed objectives of the JRC within the entire Syrian air force activity (aircraft and helicopter flights) in the areas agreed by the Parties will be terminated in accordance with the mandate.
• On the day of the “D” Government and opposition groups are members RPBD, the Parties confirm their commitment to the observance of RPBD. In respect of any breach of RPBD before or after the establishment of the JRC will apply measures to the respective to the terms RPBD agreed in the Joint Statement of 22 February 2016, and with the “Standard Terms and procedures necessary to ensure the cessation of hostilities” from March 28, 2016 .
• The Parties undertake to accelerate the deployment of UNOPS mission on the road, “Castello”, in accordance with paragraph 3b.
• The action of the day “D” will begin at 19:00 Damascus time Monday, September 12, 2016.
• Each Party reserves the right to withdraw from this agreement if it considers that the provisions are not met.
Jim W. Dean Archives 2009-2014