Soviet Union to rise from ashes in 21st century

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Soviet Union to rise from ashes in 21st century

The Soviet Union collapsed in December 1991. The break-up of the Soviet Union took everyone by surprise, including the ruling elite of the United States. Vladimir Putin described the disintegration of the USSR as “the largest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century.” Was it possible to avoid the collapse of the largest country in the world? Today, it is generally believed that it was impossible to preserve the USSR the way it had existed since 1922.

The collapse of the Union occurred due to political, economic and socio-cultural processes that had taken place in the country since 1986. Still, many researchers try to understand what the world would have been like if the USSR had not collapsed and could have functioned in the 21st century.

The agreement about the disintegration of the USSR and the creation of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) was signed on December 8, 1991 in Belarus by President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin, President of Ukraine Leonid Kravchuk and Chairman of the Supreme Council of the Republic of Belarus Stanislav Shushkevich. The treaty was based on Article 72 of the Constitution of the USSR and came a surprise for the entire population of the Soviet Union.

On December 21, the declaration on goals and principles of the CIS confirmed the Belovezha Accords. The declaration specified that the USSR ceased to exist after the CIS was formed. Eight more republics joined the CIS: Azerbaijan, Armenia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Georgia joined the CIS in December 1993.

Long before that, on March 17, 1991, nine Soviet republics held a referendum, in which the overwhelming majority of people voted to preserve the federal system of the Soviet Union. As a result of the referendum from April 23, 1991, the central government of the Soviet Union signed an agreement with nine republics. If the agreement had been implemented, the USSR would have become a federation of independent republics with one president, one army and common foreign policy. By August 1991, nine republics, save for Ukraine, had approved the draft of the new treaty. Quite possibly, the USSR could continue to exist in this form, although various political forces took measures not to let this happen.

In his desire to liberalize certain aspects of state administration, Gorbachev weakened state control, which led to economic and political chaos and the growth of nationalist and separatist movements in many republics. What would have happened if Gorbachev had implemented his reforms? What if the Soviet Communist Party could have held power in its hands?

In 1921, after the victory of the Soviet state over tsarist and anti-Bolshevik forces in the civil war of 1918-1920, the New Economic Policy was adopted. The NEP took the economy of the country to a pre-war level. In 1928, Joseph Stalin abolished the New Economic Policy. If he had not done that, the light industry and agriculture sector would have been privately owned, while mines and heavy industry would have been in the hands of the state.

To implement such a scenario in the late 1980s, Gorbachev was supposed to convince his fellow communists that his new policy would not undermine the reputation of the party given that the overwhelming majority of the Soviet population had lost confidence in party slogans and the government. Nevertheless, judging by the results of the 1991 referendum, many republics of the USSR still considered themselves part of the unified state.

According to the new economic plan, medium and large enterprises would have remained in the hands of the state, but people would have been able to carry out small-scale economic activities, especially in agriculture.

With this approach, the people would have learned to care more about economic benefits and profits, as it happened, for example, in China. The Soviet society was ready for economic reforms in the mid-1980s. An economic transformation would have made it possible to keep the country alive.

It is difficult to predict how the relations between the new USSR and China would have been developing, because China would have become USSR’s direct rival. The Chinese model of state capitalism proved to be highly effective. One can imagine a model of Soviet capitalism by analogy. The leadership of the new country should have been firm and strong, capable of making tough decisions. The Chinese also had to make a similar choice in 1989, when the military crushed demonstrations on Tiananmen Square. They decided to preserve the existing state structure.

Most likely, it was impossible to save the Soviet Union. Western influence in the ruling elite of the country was too strong, and it was impossible to achieve any agreements because of the existence of certain internal mechanisms and political processes. It is possible, however, that the new reformed Soviet Union will be created in the foreseeable future through a number of economic, military and political alliances with former Soviet republics.

The Eurasian Economic Union, which incorporates Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia and Kyrgyzstan, as well as close military cooperation between Russia and Armenia clearly confirms the desire to revive Soviet traditions on post-Soviet space. The USSR could not survive, but scenarios of its possible reincarnation will continue to excite historians and social scientists for a very long time.

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Posted by on August 15, 2017, With 2714 Reads Filed under Russia. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0. Both comments and pings are currently closed.

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21 Responses to "Soviet Union to rise from ashes in 21st century"

  1. Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 12:25 pm

    As a final point: we have Russian votes for an outstanding man of the century. Russians pointed – Stalin. I’ve never met old people even in the USSR times who could say he was terrible. He was. And no one can say what he would do at Stalin’s place. In that hard times, surrounded by traitors, hardships and enemies. Finish.

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 16, 2017 at 12:41 pm

      So you are ignorant of the truth and wish to remain so. You should read the book Russia and the Jews by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.

      “In our country the lie has become not just a moral category, but a pillar of the state.” – Alexsandr Solzhenitsyn

      “You must understand, the leading Bolsheviks who took over Russia were not Russians. They hated Russians. They hated Christians. Driven by ethnic hatred they tortured and slaughtered millions of Russians without a shred of human remorse. It cannot be overstated. Bolshevism committed the greatest human slaughter of all time. The fact that most of the world is ignorant and uncaring about this enormous crime is proof that the global media is in the hands of the perpetrators.” – Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn

  2. Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 12:04 pm

    Gordon Duff, Senior Editor, my greetings! about 300 mil is example – how history can be transformed. One may say – 100, another 300 and etc. Especially for several centuries ago. Whom i have to believe?

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 16, 2017 at 12:21 pm

      We’re not talking about centuries ago, we are talking about the 20th century. Some examples of the Jewish murderers that Stalin employed to enslave and terrorise the people of the USSR:

      Genrikh Yagoda, the greatest Jewish murderer of the 20th Century, the GPU’s deputy commander and the founder and commander of the NKVD. Yagoda diligently implemented Stalin’s collectivization orders and is responsible for the deaths of at least 10 million people. His Jewish deputies established and managed the Gulag system. Solzhenitsyn named the Gulag administrators on p79 of his book The Gulag Archipelago – Aron Solts, Yakov Rappoport, Lazar Kogan, Matvel Bertman, Genrikh Yagoa and Naftaly Frenkel. All six are Zionist Jews and they ran the greatest killing machine in the history of the world.

      Lazar Moiseyevich Kaganovich (Kogan), took an active part in the 1917 takeover of Christian Russia by Communism and rose rapidly in the Party hierarchy. From 1925 to 1928, he was first secretary of the party organization in Ukraine and by 1930 was a full member of the Politburo. Kaganovich was one of a small group of Stalin’s top sadists pushing for very high rates of collectivization after 1929. He became Stalin’s butcher of Christian Russians during the late 1920s and early 1930s when the Kremlin launched its war against the kulaks (small landowners who were Christians) and implemented a ruthless policy of land collectivization. The resulting state-organized forced famine, was a planned genocide and killed 7,000,000 Ukrainians between 1932 and 1933, and inflicted enormous suffering on the Soviet Central Asian republic of Kazakhstan.

      Josef Stalin (Dzhugashvili) altered census figures to hide the millions of famine deaths when the Ukraine and northern Caucasus region had an extremely poor harvest in 1932, just as Stalin was demanding heavy requisitions of grain to sell abroad to finance his industrialization program which was on top of enforced collective farming of 1929. Stalin is conservatively estimated to have been responsible for the murder and/or starvation of 40,000,000 Russians and Ukrainians during his reign of terror, while the total deaths resulting from the de-kulaklization and famine, by way of Kaganovich, can be conservatively estimated at about 14,500,000.

      On any analysis, Kaganovich, was one of the worst mass murderers in history, and little wonder that during World War II large numbers of Ukrainians greeted the Germans as liberators, with many joining the Waffen-SS to keep Communism from enslaving all of Europe.

  3. nawlins  August 15, 2017 at 12:24 pm

    Ian, If I’m not mistaken, that is where the US is going now. In fact, in some places, it’s already there.

  4. Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 15, 2017 at 10:29 am

    USSR was a nice country – it had justice and moral. We were equal and had labor jobs and it was paid well. I always wondered: my father- the fighting pilot of MIG-25 had salary 600 roubles (1987), and my uncle was a pipeline welder and his salary was 1200 roubles. US partners – tell me the average salary of USA fighting pilot in 1980s/ Interesting.

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 15, 2017 at 10:58 am

      Don’t forget the USSR was also a totalitarian police state with brutal secret police, a system of Gulags that were inhuman and incredibly cruel, a rich elite that lived in luxury while everyone else was queuing up all day for toilet paper and ultimately, was run by Zionist Jews. The system was utterly corrupt, it served the Zionist elite and kept the Russian people tightly controlled while murdering tens of millions of innocent Russians. Huge tracts of the former USSR are still terribly polluted, millions of inhabitants of the central Asian region have their lives ruined by illnesses caused by radiation and pollution, desertification has replaced former agricultural areas, Lake Baikal has almost dried up. There is a lot to be said for how bad the USSR was in many ways, so while there were some good aspects like a good welfare system, good education and low unemployment, the bad aspects cannot be overlooked.

    • Peter Johnson  August 15, 2017 at 1:17 pm

      Yeah well nowhere is perfect.

      As with anywhere else, the farther off the beaten track you go in Russia the nicer it gets.

      I could live East of the Urals quite happily — I always enjoy it there.

    • Laura Green  August 15, 2017 at 2:10 pm

      Mr. Greenhalgh , You are absolutely correct that the State ” was run by corrupt Zionist Jews ,who served the Zionist elite” , ” a rich elite lived in luxury …”
      Is it different in US ?
      Whatever you scary described about USSR, happened after the coup and (as always ) with the US help.
      Would you disagree that Jeltzin was an American/Israeli Zionist’s agent ?
      Listen to Andrew Bukanov, who lives in Russia ,not visitors .

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 15, 2017 at 3:16 pm

      I have a few Russian friends and I have been very interested in Russia for a long time, when the media kept saying the USSR was this big scary enemy in my childhood, I didn’t really believe it and that started my interest in knowing more about Russia. I think Yeltsin may have been more of a ‘useful idiot’ who kept the people entertained while unseen others ran things and stole 1.3 trillion from the Russian economy, money that was laundered by Trump. I just want people to learn the real history of our world, as that is the best way to acquire the knowledge and experience to interpret current events. The truth is, there were both good and bad things about the USSR, and also, there are still many things we don’t know for sure, such as Stalin, who he really was and who, if anyone, he worked for. He killed most of the original Bolsheviks, who were all Jews, and he put the Russian Jewish mafia in the gulags, but he also had Jews in his inner circle, such as Lavrenti Beria. He killed Beria’s Jewish predecessor as head of the NKVD, Yagoda, so it’s quite difficult to know just what Stalin really was. Krushchev and Gorbachev are two more leaders who I wonder about, I feel Krushchev was a patriot, but Gorbachev I feel was a tool of the bankers. Anyways, I continue to try to learn more about these subjects, sadly I can’t read Russian, which makes it much harder and much written in the west on the subject is propaganda and lies.

    • Laura Green  August 15, 2017 at 2:17 pm

      Andrew , I salute your comment.
      No matter what : that time Russians were happy. Isn’t it ?
      With love, from your countryman .

    • Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 10:49 am

      Ian – maybe some of it was a long time ago. It is a common western “scarecrow” about millions of murdered. USSR with Brezhnev, Andropov and Chernenko was good. No one says it was ideal – we needed the “Wind of Change” (Scorpions). The change, – not trait! USA made native Indians happy? Your country tested A-bombs in Nevada on the own soldiers? Korea, Vietnam? People are tired of the US stupid democracy. USA is the regime. You know – USA was for us in the 1990s as a beautiful picture – skyscrapers, McDonald’s, jeans, Mars and Sneakers bars, music…. But i was a kid. When i grew up and started to perceive the reality, i understood everything. If the US society has hamburgers, a gun, a car and house (credit kabala) – it is total happiness? “Ma-ma-ma-Material world” (Madonna) is good, but if you don’t know the arts, the history, the geography, you have no soul but only instincts – it is a poor life. Animal life. The Man was created to be a homo Sapience. We must dream about stars, do arts – music, theater, museums, help each other – eliminate poverty, the crime, the pollution of the nature….

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 16, 2017 at 10:59 am

      You obviously need to learn your own history, the USSR murdered tens of millions of it’s own citizens, and also exploded nuclear weapons above ground, poisoning far more people than the US tests did, there are still large tracts of Russia and Kazakhstan that are heavily polluted as a result of the nuclear test programme, there are huge numbers of birth defects to this day. The USSR treated it’s own minorities just as badly as the US did to the Indians, Stalin deported the entire Tartar population of Crimea for instance, he did the same with the Caucasus, an entire region was stripped of it’s inhabitants, deported to Siberian gulags. Educate yourself about the real history of the USSR and then maybe we can have a reasonable discussion.

    • Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 10:50 am

      But if we are to go to job like robots, eat, have sex, and break the ribbons of the neighbors rushing like insane mad primitive idiot at the blackfriday for iPhone or T-shirts – it is a society of animals. And some Animals become the carnivores. And someday they decide that they are the “king lion” and may dominate the world. Yes, yes – this is about USA. We may talk all life long about Jew mafia, Bibi, Isis, bad Russia, Putin, Putin, Putin again, – we may discuss it eternally. But what changes? Can anyone come out to the White House or the Kremlin and say:”Stop! We need the changes!” Eh?

    • Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 11:11 am

      Ian, – Hruschov got the power after Stalin and did EVERYTHING to make Stalin as tyrant. He was the author of the 90% of lie about Stalin. We also suspect Stalin’s death was not without Hruschov (the popcorn daddy as we call him). Lavrenti Beria was the one to obtain power after Stalin, but with the “help” of Hruschov Beria was arrested and killed. Hruschov was from Ukraine and it was Hruschov who “presented” Crimea to the Ukrainian Republic. He was true idiot. Marginal. Remember his speech in the Assembly of UN? Yes, the boot and phrase – we will crush you into the powder (to USA).

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 16, 2017 at 11:35 am

      Oh dear, if you think Stalin was anything other than a murderous tyrant, then you are simply wrong. Krushchev did a lot to reverse the worst of the Stalinist regime’s cruelty. You should educate yourself about the purges and show trials of the 1930s when Stalin had almost the entire senior officer corps of the Red Army arrested, tried and executed for no good reason other than his own paranoia that the Red Army might pose a threat to his own power. Or what about the Katyn Massacre where Stalin had thousands of Polish officers murdered by the NKVD, just one of countless massacres committed on Stalin’s orders. Try reading The Gulag Archipelago by Solzhenitsyn, then you might gain a little insight into Stalin’s USSR.

    • Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 11:13 am

      Thank you, Laura. Yes – i’m young. But i remember many things in the history. Try to be objective.

    • Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 11:44 am

      Sir, i learned history in the Soviet school. I learn it even now. I realize that history is a toy in the hands of politics. Look – the west demonize Russia from the times of Ivan III (Grozny) to Stalin. What we have – the documents? Did you see the crimes with your own eyes? I’m sure – NO. Not you and not me. And the archives are corrected by new powers in the country. But the question is another: why Russian part of the history is a crime, while Western part of the history is OK? I don’t mean USA only (i now build the gas pipeline, passing through the Vologda village that is 700 years old, when there was no meaning “USA”). I do not adore Stalin. But he was THE MAN in THAT time and NO OTHER measures could be. It is a part of history. I may say – i know that Bush and Obama killed 300 millions of the people all over the world – who counted? Why they are not tyrants? This is the question, Sir…. We are always bad and you are always good. The pharisee old western practice. Nothing personal.

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 16, 2017 at 11:55 am

      Bush and Obama killed 300 million? That is an utterly ludicrous statement. So is your claim that Stalin’s crimes are inventions, or that no other measures could be, that is ridiculous. Stalin murdered people for no reason other than his own paranoia, it is Stalin’s fault that the Red Army lost millions of men when the Germans invaded in 1941 for two reasons, firstly, he had murdered almost the entire senior officer corps, so that the only commanders left were incompetents, secondly, he had moved the Red Army to the border, the worst possible deployment if defending your territory is the intention. The USSR was extremely lucky that a handful of skilled commanders like Rokossovsky and Zhukov had managed to survive Stalin’s purges and were able to organise a defence, otherwise the Germans would have won the war before the end of 1942. Stalin intended to conquer all of Europe, that is why he had placed the Red Army on the border – they were about to invade Europe and the Germans attacked first, to stop this happening. Try reading the wartime propaganda writings of Ilya Ehrenburg and Wassily Grossman, then you might start to understand just how evil and murderous the Stalinist regime was.

    • Andrew_Bukanov(Russia)  August 16, 2017 at 11:59 am

      Paranoia or the fact? Are you sure? Have we been there near him? The problem is that we have discussion based on “some granny told us” archives. Let’s don’t touch the Polish officers in Katyn – i wasn’t there and haven’t seen that. Some may say it was German provocation. I’m for the truth – but it is hidden from us. Stalin was a part of the Russian history. All in Russia know why several USSR nationalities were deported by Stalin. It is not the secret. Now they are all rehabilitated. You may have your own truth and i have mine. Napoleon killed 1/3 of the French colour of the nation and many Europeans when he came to Russia – but i’ve never heard from the French people – he was a bad boy. Sir, this discussion is empty. Just like Dirol or Orbit – what is better. But the man’s life is not a gum – unfortunately…. we all had shameful pages in our history…

    • Ian Greenhalgh, Managing Editor  August 16, 2017 at 12:26 pm

      I see, so you are in denial and do not wish to learn the real truth of Russia’s history. Katyn is undisputed fact, when the Germans found the mass grave, they brought a great number of independent foreign witnesses to come and oversee the exhumation, including Polish, British and French senior officers from the prisoner of war camps and Swiss Red cross officials. They documented everything in great detail. Further verification of the NKVD massacre came after the fall of the USSR when the archives were opened and the papers were found proving Stalin ordered the massacre and the NKVD carried it out.

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