…by Jonas E. Alexis and Lasha Darkmoon
Dr. Lasha Darkmoon is an Anglo-American ex-academic with higher degrees in Classics who lives and works in England. She is also a poet, translator, and political columnist. Her website, Darkmoon.me, was attacked on January 15 by person(s) unknown and is now no longer available. The site has not been destroyed and can be revived easily enough in a couple of days or weeks if need be.
We apologize for the length and technicality of this article, but we thought it was time and necessary to address some fundamental issues in our time in one scholarly tome.
Jonas E. Alexis: I have argued in the past that no philosophical, political or intellectual project can make sense without what Immanuel Kant called practical reason (the categorical imperative), and practical reason cannot really exist without metaphysical Logos, the essence of anything reasonable or rational in the universe.
I have also argued that any individual who ignorantly or deliberately dismisses or ignores practical reason in his project will inexorably end up propounding internal contradictions, incoherency, illogical leaps, and sometimes complete nonsense.
That’s what happened to Darwin, and his intellectual children have never recovered from that categorical blunder. What essentially saved the philosophical projects of thinkers like Hegel is that they knew how Logos plays out in history and submitted themselves to it. Hegel himself called this “the cunning of reason.”
I have written numerous articles on these very issues.But over the years I soon discovered that some observers, including the late William L. Pierce, progressively became victims of their own incoherent ideology largely because they started with the premise that morality plays next to no role in their enterprise.
The movements that these people have founded are still failing miserably not because they were unable to produce people who understand the political climate, but rather because their metaphysical principles were built on irreconcilable contradictions. These irreconcilable contradictions eventually led their progenitors to their philosophical and intellectual death.
For example, Pierce began his book Who We Are (a compilation of essays and opinions, not a scholarly treatise) by saying, “In the Beginning was the Cosmos—and is and ever shall be. The Cosmos is the Whole, the All-encompassing.”
The statement explains nothing and is fraught with logical and philosophical errors. In fact, it goes against what modern science itself is now saying. To say that the universe “is and ever shall be” is a blatant denial that the universe began to exist, and to axiomatically assert that “in the beginning was the Cosmos” and then say that the Cosmos “is and ever shall be” is contradictory. If the Cosmos “is an ever shall be,” then it makes no sense to assert that “in the beginning was the Cosmos.”
Obviously Pierce, who by the way was an assistant professor of physics at the Oregon State University, was unable to catch up with what mathematical physicists themselves were saying during his lifetime. As Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose themselves acknowledged back in 1996: “almost everyone now believes that the universe, and time itself, had a beginning at the big bang.”
More recently, noted cosmologists Alex Vilenkin of Tufts University has stated: “It is said that an argument is what convinces reasonable men and a proof is what it takes to convince even an unreasonable man. With the proof now in place, cosmologists can no longer hide behind the possibility of a past-eternal universe. There is no escape, they have to face the problem of a cosmic beginning.”
Many scientists were bewildered by the discovery that the universe began to exist because it clearly pointed toward a conclusion they had been trying to avoid. Not only did it compel them to reconsider their theories, but it also implied a simple logical deduction: whatever begins to exist has a cause; the universe began to exist, therefore the universe has a cause.
If the universe has a cause, then that cause cannot be within the universe precisely because that would be contradictory. This evidently destroys pantheism, which states that God and nature are the same. If God and nature are the same, then we are back to a seemingly beginningless universe. The sad thing again is that William Pierce was a staunch pantheist, and he couldn’t realize that the system itself violates both science and logic.
While physicist Paul Davies agrees that the scientific data (most specifically from his own fields of interest, which include mathematics, physics, and astronomy) suggest that the universe had a beginning, he rejects the conclusion of what British astronomer Sir Fred Hoyle would have called “a super-intellect” because, in his own words, “I never liked the idea of divine tinkering.”
Since the eternal universe hypothesis has now been widely abandoned because of its lack of scientific and logical rigor, we are left with two possible explanations: either the universe created itself, which is a contradiction in terms, or someone else did the job.
Unfortunately, many brilliant minds have fallen into the trap of what I call intellectual perversity. Philosopher Daniel Dennett declares in his book Breaking the Spell that the universe “creates itself ex nihilo,” and that, he believes, is “the ultimate bootstrapping trick.”
Quite frankly, it is a bootstrapping trick, and Dennett gets stuck on that trick because he wants the origin of this “self-creation” to be “non-miraculous”—with no supernatural intervention at all.
Richard Dawkins said something quite similar. In answer to the question “How do you believe life itself began?,” he responded, “The origin of life has got to be something self-replicating. We don’t know what it was, but whatever it was, it was self-replicating.” When the interviewer asked him to define what he meant by self-replicating, Dawkins said, “It has to grow and then split, so that it reproduces daughter units like itself.”
Stephen Hawking, in his recent book The Grand Design, ascribes to that hypothesis, saying, “Because there is a law of gravity, the universe can and will create itself out of nothing.” Peter Adkins of Oxford likewise gives allegiance to this principle, calling it the “Cosmic Bootstrap.” For Adkins, “space-time generates its own dust in the process of its own self-assembly.”
These ideas are spurious when taken to their logical conclusions. As Oxford mathematician and philosopher of science John C. Lennox notes in his critique of Hawking’s view,
“If we say that ‘X creates Y,’ we presuppose the existence of X in the first place in order to bring Y into existence. That is a simple matter of understanding what the words ‘X creates Y’ mean. If, therefore, we say ‘X creates X,’ we imply that we are presupposing the existence of X in order to account for the existence of X.
“This is obviously self-contradictory and thus logically incoherent—even if we put X equal to the universe! To presuppose the existence of the universe to account for its own existence sounds like something out of Alice in Wonderland, not science.”
The “self-replicating” argument is important to many because it demonstrates how far some people are willing to bend reason and logic in order to justify their preexisting beliefs.
William Pierce was no exempt from the irrationality that pervades Darwinism, which Michael Ruse himself has now called a “religion.” He again posited that “We can look back some 15 billion years altogether, to a singular state of the Cosmos, when it existed as a primordial ‘atom’ of infinite temperature and density.”
Again, how is that an explanation for the existence of the universe and even atom in the first place? How did we get from no atom to atom? Any serious logician will tell you that even if we go back far enough, it cannot be atoms all the way because this will lead to infinite regress, which itself is absurd.
So Piece cannot summon atom in order to explain the very existence of the thing he is trying to prove. It is a circular argument. As our dear friend and cogent writer E. Michael Jones put it last October, “To say that ‘Atoms formed’ was the scientific equivalent to saying ‘Shit happens.’”
What we are saying here is that William Pierce’s project was not really grounded in practical reason or logical consistency but in an ideology which ended up crippling him philosophically and intellectually. This is why his book Who We Are is morally repugnant and practically worthless.
As E. Michael Jones again pointed out, you simply cannot have ethnos without Logos, and people like Pierce were trying to erect an ideological edifice with no foundation in metaphysical Logos.
Since Pierce didn’t ground his project in Logos, he quickly fell under the spell of racial/racist ideology, which is always the temptation when people become disillusioned with Zionism and Jewish subversive movements and at the same time embrace Darwinism, a system which is arguably incompatible with the moral order or practical reason.
Pierce’s inability to see things the way they really are was quite disappointing, but that was expected in a way because his intellectual father, Darwin, deliberately ignored objective morality in his project as well.
According to Darwin, says historian of science Janet Browne, “The natural world has no moral validity and purpose…” The concept of morality again was relative to Darwin. It was not that he couldn’t recognize morality as a vibrant part of human beings. No, it was that he metaphysically rejected Logos and swiftly invented a system which did not allow him to see things the way they really are.
Darwin then began to slide in internal contradictions and inconsistencies very quickly. “At some future period,” he wrote in the Descent of Man, “not very distant as measured by centuries, the civilized races of man will almost certainly exterminate and replace throughout the world the savage races.”
If Darwin’s “survival of the fittest” is true, then aren’t the Zionists doing a good thing by exterminating what they see as “the savages”? If one can determine “the fittest” by “survivability,” then people like William L. Pierce need to come to terms with the moral implications of Darwinism, which, as Darwinian philosopher James Rachels himself points out, challenge the very foundation of moral values and duties. In a similar vein, noted philosopher of science Michael Ruse did not hesitate to write,
“I appreciate when somebody says ‘Love thy neighbor as thyself,’ they think they are referring above and beyond themselves…Nevertheless, to a Darwinian evolutionist it can be seen that such reference is truly without foundation. Morality is just an aid to survival and reproduction…an ephemeral product of the evolutionary process, just as are other adaptations. It has no existence or being beyond this, and any deeper meaning is illusory.”
The late evolutionary biologist William Provine of Cornell University added: “Let me summarize my views on what modern evolutionary biology tells us loud and clear, and I must say that these are basically Darwin’s views…There is no ultimate foundation for ethics, no ultimate meaning in life, and no free will for humans, either.”
Take it from Darwin himself: “The natural world has no moral validity or purpose.” If Ruse and Provine are right, then people like Pierce are in trouble. More importantly, if Darwin is right, then people like Pierce should love the Zionists precisely because Darwin himself predicted that “the strongest” will win through perennial conflict. But because he was intellectually blind, Pierce didn’t know that he was indirectly deconstructing Darwin by saying,
“In the end, though colonialism in its day had made some Englishmen very rich, nothing was left except the superstition and the softness. And because of that superstition and softness, it is now the Indians and the other conquered races who are colonizing England without opposition from the English.”
Well, should that be a problem to a consistent Darwinist? Pierce and others should have paid more attention to G. K. Chesterton, who forcefully argued:
“As a politician, [the new rebel] will cry out that war is a waste of life, and then, as a philosopher, that all life is waste of time. A Russian pessimist will denounce a policeman for killing a peasant, and then prove by the highest philosophical principles that the peasant ought to have killed himself. . . .
“The man of this school goes first to a political meeting, where he complains that savages are treated as if they were beasts; then he takes his hat and umbrella and goes on to a scientific meeting, where he proves that they practically are beasts.
“In short, the modern revolutionist, being an infinite skeptic, is always engaged in undermining his own mines. In his book on politics he attacks men for trampling on morality; in his book on ethics he attacks morality for trampling on men. Therefore the modern man in revolt has become practically useless for all purposes of revolt. By rebelling against everything he has lost his right to rebel against anything.”
When the Origin of Species came out in 1859, a Manchester newspaper quickly realized that Darwin was implicitly perpetuating the idea that “might is right” and that “every cheating tradesman is also right.” Darwin disagreed with no serious justification. Yet one year before he died, Charles Darwin proved that his critics were right all along. He said,
“I could show fight on natural selection having done and doing more for the progress of civilization than you seem inclined to admit. Remember what risk the nations of Europe ran, not so many centuries ago, of being overwhelmed by the Turks, and how ridiculous such an idea now is!
“The more civilized so-called Caucasian races have beaten the Turkish hollow in the struggle for existence. Looking to the world at no very distant date, what an endless number of the lower races will have been eliminated by the higher civilized races throughout the world.”
Darwin again declared at the end of his Origin of Species: “Thus, from the war of nature, from famine and death, the most exalted object which we are capable of conceiving, namely, the production of the higher animals, directly follows.”
So whether Darwin and his intellectual children like it or not, Social Darwinism flows seamlessly from Darwin’s own ideological foundation, and this wicked enterprise has wrought havoc both in Europe and America in the 1920s and 30s.
Both Plato and Aristotle established the idea that human beings are living in a moral and comprehensive universe. This universe, they argued, can be understood by rational creatures like us. For them, rationality inexorably leads to practical reason, and practical reason is simply another word for morality.
“Moral virtue,” says Aristotle, “is a state of character concerned with choice,” and is therefore “practical.” Choice, Aristotle continues, “cannot exist without reason and intellect or without a moral state.”
People who can “see what is good for themselves and what is good for men in general” do possess something called “practical wisdom.” This practical wisdom “issues commands, since its end is what ought to be done or not to be done.” Wisdom, not just plain knowledge, “must plainly be the most finished of the forms of knowledge.”
Aristotle emphasizes again and again that “the work of man is achieved only in accordance with practical wisdom as well as with moral virtue.” In other words, if practical wisdom is banned, then man would quickly fall into irrationality and contradiction. For Aristotle, “it is not possible to be good in the strict sense without practical wisdom, or practically wise without moral virtue.”
Without practical wisdom, or practical reason, or telos, then everything becomes chaos. This telos, in a nutshell, is what kept the West alive for the past millennia. But Darwin challenged that telos in the 19th century and unleashed an essentially irrational and wicked ideology onto the universe, which is still intellectually crippling its finest proponents.
Without telos as a guiding principle, then you’ll eventually end up with strife or “survival of the fittest,” which, by the way, is arguably a tautology. William Shakespeare seemed to have understood this principle. He wrote:
Take but degree [or telos] away, untune that string
And hark what discord follows! Each thing meets
In mere oppunancy. The bounded waters
Should lift their bosoms higher than the shores
And make a sop of all this solid globe.
Strength should be the lord of imbecility.
And the rude son should strike his father dead.
Force should be right, or rather right and wrong,
Between whose endless jar justice resides
Should lose their names, and so should justice too.
Then everything includes itself in power,
Power into will, will into appetite,
And appetite, a universal wolf,
So doubly second with will and power
Must make perforce a universal prey,
And last eat itself up.
Telos, which logically leads to “practical wisdom” and inexorably to Logos, is the intellectual patrimony of the West. Immanuel Kant picked that theme up and philosophically expanded it to the moral universe. Kant convincingly argued that human beings cannot live rationally and consistently without practical reason or morality. As he put it in his Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals:
“Act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law.”
This moral and universal law, says Kant, is what binds human beings together as rational creatures, and it is on that basis that we can judge people’s actions. So, any system that seeks to dismiss that moral law must be wrong precisely because that system will inevitably be incoherent and therefore worthless.
Conversely, an intellectual project without the moral law is not really a serious project. It is a perversion of it. Kant continues to say that for an action to be good, “it is not enough that it should conform to the moral law—it must also be done for the sake of the moral law.”
Both Shakespeare and Kant kicked Darwin’s project out the window because there is no Darwinian maxim that can logically become a universal or moral law. As we have already seen, Darwin denied a universal moral law and specifically excluded morality from his intellectual project. This eventually led him to a weltanschauung which philosophically is contradictory and ultimately repugnant.
Darwin could make neither heads nor tails of Kant’s arguments because Darwin, as he himself admitted, had “no practice in following abstract and abstruse reasoning.” This inexorably led Darwin to make elementary and categorical errors, such as morality cannot be “objective and universal.”
As soon as Darwin denied the metaphysical nature of morality, say biographers Adrian Desmond and James Moore, he began to embrace “a terrifying materialism,” according to which “the human mind, morality, and even belief in God were artifacts of the brain…”
By this time, Darwin began to use “science” to smuggle in irrational ideas into the West. According to historian of biology Peter J. Bowler, Darwin
“was trying to turn morality into a branch of biology through the proposal that our instinctive behavior can only be understood as a product of natural processes that have adapted us to a particular way of life based on the family unit as a means of raising children.”
Darwin’s intellectual children are still clinging to biology in order to explain morality, a philosophically vacuous enterprise that always locks them into an intellectual mumbo jumbo. If everything, including morality, is the artifact of the brain, if our behavior is “instinctive, programmed by evolution into the very structure of our brains,” and if “morality is merely the rationalization of these social instincts,” then there is no moral responsibility whatsoever.
In response to Plato’s “necessary ideas” of good and evil, Darwin said, “read monkeys for preexistence.” Here we see again and again that Darwin was essentially deconstructing Plato and Aristotle, and one can logically argue that Darwin’s Descent of Man, which came out in 1871, sent the West into an intellectual darkness or perpetual conflict, which eventually gave rise to the eugenic movement in Europe and America.
So it is no accident that Pierce, an ardent proponent of Darwin, could not solve the moral problem. The difference between Friedrich Nietzsche and Darwin’s intellectual children is that Nietzsche understood that once morality is rooted out of its metaphysical matrix, then claiming that something is right or wrong is just flimflam.
Other metaphysicians like Jean Paul Sartre came to similar conclusions. In fact, Sartre declared that once morality is out of the equation, finding moral “values in an intelligible heaven” is crazy. Man, therefore, is a ‘useless passion.”
Sartre, who bragged about having been “in whorehouses all over the world,” added that “Nowhere is it written that good exists, that we must be honest or must not lie, since we are on a plane shared only by men.”
The interesting thing is that Pierce read Nietzsche but he didn’t seem to understand what Nietzsche was saying when it came to the metaphysical implications of rejecting morality. Again, if we take Nietzsche’s Superman seriously, then Zionism or Jewish subversive movements are right, since we don’t even know whether this Superman is a Zionist or some Jewish revolutionary. In fact, Nietzsche agreed with Dostoyevsky that if God is dead, then objective morality is over and that truth can become a lie. Nietzsche said:
“To be truthful means using the customary metaphor—in moral terms: the obligation to lie according a fixed convention, to lie herd-like in a style obligatory for all.”
According to E. Michael Jones, Nietzsche deliberately infected himself with syphilis in a form of demonic pact. Throughout much of his life, Nietzsche sought to overthrow the moral order in the West. He even disliked Socrates because he thought Socrates was a proto-Christian philosopher. As Jones puts it, “Nietzsche portrayed Socrates as the villain in the cultural history of the West.”
Nietzsche’s own term, the transvaluation of all values, was a concept which sought to overthrow the moral values of the West, and he thought that music was the main vehicle to bring that about. Nietzsche also replaced the moral order with the Dionysian madness, which he sought through the music of Richard Wagner, most particularly Tristan and Isolde. Wagner’s conversion to Christianity was a breaking point between the former friends and revolutionaries.
Interestingly enough, Nietzsche was the person who had a tremendously powerful influence on Pierce. Pierce even thought that people can based their qualities “on Nietzschean values” a swell. When he was asked “What kinds of qualities are at the top of the scale as you see?” he responded, “Wisdom is one—wisdom grounded in objectivity, the ability to see the world as it really is. And there’s courage, not being fearful or cowardly. Self-mastery is one—in fact, this is probably the most valuable trait a person can have.”
What we are seeing here is that Pierce was a crummy and unscrupulous thinker, and I do not say this lightly. The Nietzschean worldview is the anti-thesis of everything the West represents, and Pierce was trying to erect his edifice based on that weltanschauung.
Nietzsche got his ideas from Arthur Schopenhauer, who ended up hating his mother and contracting syphilis, presumably as a form of revenge of their turbulent and unhappy relationship. Syphilis had already taken a toll on figures and writers like Schubert, Donizetti, Paganani, Manet, Baudelaire, Maupassant, etc.
Schopenhauer’s relationship with his mother had a powerful influence on his philosophy, which he fleshed out in his famous work The World as Will and Representation.
“We begin in the madness of carnal desire and the transport of voluptuousness,” writes Schopenhauer elsewhere, and “we end in the dissolution of all our parts and the musty stench of corpses.” Schopenhauer viewed the world not in a Logo-centric way but in a meaningless void which some writers have called “vitalistic irrationality.”
Virtually everything is a manifestation of pure will, which has no ultimate telos but which has the potential to magically create things such as the universe. Some writers have argued that “The roots of Schopenhauer’s misanthropy and pessimism should be sought in the traumas of his childhood and youth rather than his Kantian-Buddhist philosophy, whose conclusions simply served to confirm his pessimism.” This seems to be true.
Nietzsche read Schopenhauer’s The World as Will and Representation in 1865, and that had a powerful influence on the newly appointed professor. The book had such an influence that Nietzsche expanded it in his own book, The Will to Power. Here again Schopenhauer’s tone can be easily recognized in Nietzsche’s own philosophy:
“I felt for the first time that the strongest and highest Will to Life does not find expression in a miserable struggle for existence, but in a Will to War, a Will to Power, a Will to Overpower.”
The logic is pretty straightforward here: Nietzsche attacked Socrates and the moral order; Pierce loves Nietzsche, and Pierce was advocating white nationalism in America. So, where was Pierce really leading his followers? Could it be that Pierce’s white nationalism are essentially an extension of Nietzschean ideology?
And if so, could it be that Pierce’s movement was infected by a diabolical worldview which categorically rejects the moral law and order and substitutes “The Superman”? If that also is plausible, then could it be that Pierce’s white nationalism metaphysically leads to madness, chaos, and sometimes moral and spiritual death? Could it be that Pierce’s white nationalism was born out of a worldview which was hatched in a demonic pact and a sexually transmitted disease known as syphilis? Pierce married no less than five times, and I wonder if he was trying to extra some objectivity or the Superman from that enterprise.
When asked the question, “The Superman—what does that concept mean to you?” Pierce responded:
“The Superman does not exist as yet. He is not yet born. But he will be born out of mankind. He isn’t some kind of separate or transcendent being. So it comes down to an evolutionary job, a breeding job, which is to be completed over, probably, a great period of time. The task of those alive now is to prepare the earth for the Superman, pave the way, serve this process. Do you see what I am saying?”
People like Pierce are trying to simultaneously retain their cake and eat it: moral claims are relative, they chirp, but it is universally and ontologically wrong for Zionists and the state of Israel to slaughter innocent men, women and children in the Middle East!
Walter Kaufmann, Nietzsche’s most meticulous biographer, said that Nietzsche “felt that the death of God threatened human life with a complete loss of all significance.”
Kaufmann moved on to add that “Nietzsche prophetically envisages himself as a madman: to have lost God means madness; and when mankind will discover that it has lost God, universal madness will break out. This apocalyptic sense of dreadful things to come hangs over Nietzsche’s thinking like a thundercloud.”
Pierce could not see Nietzsche’s metaphysical deduction here because Pierce was morally and intellectually blind. Nietzsche seemed to have foreseen in Thus Spake Zarathustra that when individuals kill metaphysical Logos, they start plunging “backward, sideward, forward, in all directions” and they start “straying as through an infinite nothing.”
That statement characterizes the life of William L. Pierce, and it is really sad that some of his devoted followers even today do not have the moral and intellectual insight to realize that Pierce was leading them into “an infinite nothing.”
Nietzsche, says Kaufman, “called himself ‘the Antichrist,’” which to us means the opposite of metaphysical Logos and which St. Athanasius would have called Satanism. In a sense, Pierce and his followers were knowingly or unknowingly following a wicked principle largely because it was taken from Nietzsche’s Antichrist.
Like Nietzsche, Darwin eventually realized that the elimination of Christianity would eventually lead to moral chaos, “and Thomas Henry Huxley, of all people, elected to the first London School Board, argued strongly for religious instruction in state school.”
Both Darwin and Huxley were living on borrowed principles because their own system didn’t have a moral mechanism to sustain itself. That’s embarrassing enough, but Pierce was in a worse shape because he categorically denied and attacked Logos in all its manifestations.
Lasha Darkmoon: Is Christianity a “slave religion” designed to turn Christians into wimps and sissies?
Christianity, we are frequently told, is a Jewish plot. It was cunningly designed to emasculate Christians and turn them into wimps. It does this by encouraging Christians to love their enemies and turn the other cheek. So goes a popular conspiracy theory popularized by the late White Nationalist leader Dr. William Pierce. Root out Christianity and return to your pagan roots, Pierce urges. Christianity is a “slave religion” and will turn you into a pathetic pacifist incapable of standing up to your enemies.
Here are some significant extracts from Pierce’s history of the White Race, Who We Are. These ideas have had a persuasive effect on many who were looking for pretexts to dump Christianity and find salvation elsewhere:
“For more than two centuries it [Christianity] festered in the sewers and catacombs of Rome, along with dozens of other alien religious sects from the Levant; its first adherents were Rome’s slaves, a cosmopolitan lot from all the lands conquered by the Romans.
“It was a religion designed to appeal to slaves: blessed are the poor, the meek, the wretched, the despised, it told them, for you shall inherit the earth from the strong, the brave, the proud, and the mighty; there will be pie in the sky for all believers, and the rest will suffer eternal torment. It appealed directly to a sense of envy and resentment of the weak against the strong.”
“A Frank of the seventh or eighth century would tremble in superstitious awe before some fragment of bone or vial of dried blood which the Church had declared a sacred relic with miracle-working powers—but if you smote him on the cheek you would have a fight on your hands, not another cheek turned.
“As for the brotherhood of man and equality in the eyes of the Lord, the Germans had no time for such nonsense; when confronted with non-Whites, they instinctively reached for the nearest lethal weapon.”
“Slave Morality. But Christian ethics—the slave morality preached in the Roman catacombs—was like a time bomb ticking away in Europe—a Trojan horse brought inside the fortress, waiting for its season. That season came, and the damage was done. Today Christianity is one of the most active forces working from within to destroy the White race.”
“The inversion of natural values inherent in the exalting of the botched, the unclean, and the poor in spirit in the Sermon on the Mount—the injunction to “resist not evil”—all are prescriptions for racial suicide. Indeed, had a fiendishly clever enemy set out to concoct a set of doctrines intended to lead the White race to its destruction, he could hardly have done better.”
— Extracts from William Pierce’s “Who We Are”. (Emphasis added)
You get the idea. Christianity is the great weakener. If you want to be strong, dump Christianity.
Pierce’s ideas are well-expressed and obviously sincere, but other thinkers before him had nurtured the same beliefs. Pierce was clearly influenced by Nietzsche, who had raved against Christianity in his Antichrist. Note this. There is not a single historical fact in Nietzsche’s rhetoric: just fine words and histrionic posturing, befitting a man who sounded more like a mad prophet than a wise philosopher.
Let’s hear what Nietzsche has to say. It is even more extreme, verging on hysteria, than anything Pierce had to say. We are used to this sort of thing now, but in 1895, when these words first burst into print, they must have struck most readers as the ravings of a lunatic:
“Christianity remains to this day the greatest misfortune of humanity…. Our age knows better. What was formerly merely sickly now becomes indecent—it is indecent to be a Christian today…. I call Christianity the one great curse, the one great intrinsic depravity, the one great instinct of revenge, for which no means are venomous enough, or secret, subterranean and small enough—I call it the one immortal blemish upon the human race.”
— Friedrich Nietzsche, The Antichrist
Can you see a single factual statement here? Unfortunately, you cannot. You see only rhetoric and mood music, the verbal froth and fury of a man who was at the end of his tether and was soon to be pronounced clinically insane.
You can’t have it both ways. If the Jews invented Christianity as a cunning ploy to weaken Christians and turn them into natural-born slaves, which is what the Christ-bashing conspiracy theorists maintain, then you need to explain why the Jews have spent so much of their time and energy, ever since the foundation of Christianity, trying to destroy the very thing they should never have created in the first place.
Why create a Frankenstein monster in Palestine 2000 years ago—i.e., Christianity, under the alleged distorter and corrupter of Christ’s original teachings, St Paul—in order to spend the next 2000 years trying to destroy it? The inability to answer this simple question has never troubled the conspiracy theorists who move in a world beyond the tedious limitations of logic and fact.
I will ask this awkward question again and challenge the Christ-bashing conspiracy theorists to answer it: If Christianity is so mad, bad and dangerous to organized Jewry that they should have spent the last 2000 years trying to destroy it, why did they bother to create it in the first place under the aegis of the allegedly wicked and scheming St Paul?
If you can answer that, fine; if you cannot, why keep spreading these preposterous conspiracy theories?
We need to clarify here that neither Nietzsche nor Pierce went so far as to state that Christianity had actually been cooked up and planned by an evil cabal of Jews, with St Paul as the ringleader, so as to bring the whole edifice of Christianity crashing down like a house of cards at some later date. This is a much later conspiracy theory which is in vogue today among the more wild-eyed Christophobes who infest the internet. The reader will be familiar with these types, for whom no evidence for their bizarre theories is ever necessary.
Another fatal flaw in the argument of these logically challenged conspiracy theories theorists is their glib assumption that Christians have all read Christ’s Sermon on the Mount and been profoundly influenced by its message. Having been infected by Christ’s noble words in St Matthew’s Gospel, these 2.1 billion Christians have all decided to implement its instructions to the letter, swept away by devout enthusiasm.
One can imagine some hypothetical individual, at one moment a fierce Viking warrior, suddenly morphing into a pathetic wimp after picking up his New Testament and casting an eye over its contents—something he would have been most unlikely to do in any case, given that New Testaments and Bibles in the vernacular were almost non-existent in those distant days before the invention of the printing press in the mid-fifteenth century. Most Bibles were then in Latin, totally inaccessible to all but an infinitesimal minority of learned monks and clerics.
You are being asked to believe the absurdity that 2.1 billion Christians have been exposed to the extreme pacifism of Christ’s Sermon on the Mount—in which they are told to turn the other cheek and love their enemies—and that this exposure to Christ’s pacifist ideas has induced a mass hypnosis in them, turning 2.1 billion Christians into wimps and sissies.
But since when did the injunction “Be ye therefore perfect” produce perfection? Long before Christ came on the scene, telling us to be perfect, Moses had given the Jews the Ten Commandments. Have these commandments, drummed into the Jewish mind over the millennia, produced a race of model citizens?
No, they have certainly not. They have had no effect whatever in turning Jewish sinners, en masse, into Jewish saints. So why should Christ’s pacifist teachings turn most Christians into servile sissies when Moses’ Ten Commandments have notably failed to turn most Jews into paragons of virtue?
I wish someone had asked Pierce this question: Do most Christians, when you strike them on the right cheek, turn the other cheek and invite you to strike that cheek also? If so, I have yet to come across one such Christian.
One has only to look at the blood-soaked history of Europe and America to see that Christians are among the most belligerent people on earth, despite the pacifist teachings of Christianity. Ever since the foundation of Christianity, Christian nations have waged war without ceasing, killing off vast numbers of people without agonizing too much about it.
The Crusades were not fought by pathologically altruistic Christians. Nor was the British Empire, on which the sun never set, acquired by exemplary Christians with a sword in one hand and a New Testament in the other. In short, Christianity has had no effect whatsoever in turning its adherents into limp-wristed poltroons. If this is why the Jews “invented” Christianity—to emasculate Christians—they failed spectacularly.
Christ’s Sermon on the Mount, ironically, didn’t even turn Christ into a wimp. For if Christ had followed his own teachings at all times, he would hardly have taken a whip to the moneychangers in the temple. The same man who said “Blessed are the peacemakers” also said, “Think not that I am come to send peace on earth: I came not to send peace, but a sword.”
The world would be an infinitely worse place today if all of us were to give up our religious beliefs and become atheists instead, given that more millions (100 million-plus) have died under atheistical Communism in the 20th century than at any other time in history.
One of the most brilliant mathematicians and philosophers of the 17th century, Blaise Pascal (1623-1662), had a mind-altering mystical experience which turned his entire life upside down. There was no need for any tiresome logic chopping, ratiocination or “empirical evidence” after that. He had entered into intimate contact with the Divine. And that’s all that mattered:
“On 23 November 1654, between 10:30 and 12:30 at night, Pascal had an intense religious vision and immediately recorded the experience in a brief note to himself which began: “Fire. God of Abraham, God of Isaac, God of Jacob, not of the philosophers and the scholars…” and concluded by quoting Psalm 119:16: “I will not forget thy word. Amen.” He seems to have carefully sewn this document into his coat and always transferred it when he changed clothes; a servant discovered it only by chance after his death.”
When it comes to the difference between faith and what the scoffers like to call “blind belief”, Pascal said it best: “The heart has its reasons, which reason does not know. We feel it in a thousand things. It is the heart which experiences God, and not the reason. This, then, is faith: God felt by the heart—not by reason.” (See here)
These words bring to mind Hamlet’s famous comment to his friend Horatio, “There are more things in heaven and earth, Horatio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy.” Words that were more or less echoed in the twentieth century by the great biologist J.B.S. Haldane: “The universe is not only stranger than we imagine, it is stranger than we can imagine.”
In the last analysis, there is every reason to believe that Christianity and the great Oriental religions—in particular Buddhism and Vedanta—are perfectly compatible with modern science. According to Vedanta, Mind is everything. Mind did not arise out of matter, but matter out of mind. In the beginning, only Mind existed.
The great physicist Sir James Jeans was once asked in an interview: “Do you believe that life on this planet is the result of some sort of accident, or do you believe that it is a part of some great scheme?” He replied:
“I incline to the idealistic theory that consciousness is fundamental, and that the material universe is derivative from consciousness, not consciousness from the material universe. In general, the universe seems to me to be nearer to a Great Thought than to a great machine. It may well be that each individual consciousness ought to be compared to a brain-cell in a Universal Mind.”
Take some time now to consider the work of the theoretical physicist and theologian John Charlton Polkinghorne. Born in 1930, Polkinghorne managed to combine quantum physics and mathematics with Christian theology, becoming a practicing Anglican priest while serving as Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University. He achieved this synthesis in several acclaimed books which included The Quantum World (1989), Quantum Physics and the World (1989), Quantum Physics and Theology: An Unexpected Kinship (2005), Exploring Reality: The Intertwining of Science and Religion (2007), and Questions of Truth (2009).
Polkinghorne was knighted by the Queen of England in 1997, and in 2002 he received the £1 million ($1.45 million) Templeton Prize, awarded for “exceptional contributions to affirming life’s spiritual dimension.”
When political radicals like William Pierce call for the death and destruction of Christianity, they have no concept what cultural vandalism they are advocating. Renaissance masterpieces produced by Christian artists like Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael are among the most celebrated works of art ever produced. If Christianity had been aborted in the womb or destroyed in its infancy, none of these great works of genius would ever have seen the light of day, for Christianity provided the rich soil which gave them birth.
The most admired classical music in the Western canon is the Christian sacred music of composers like Pachelbel, Vivaldi, Bach, Handel, Mozart, Haydn, Beethoven, Schubert and Verdi. Many well-known historical figures who influenced Western science considered themselves Christian: Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, Newton, Boyle.
According to 100 Years of Nobel Prize (2005), a review of Nobel prizes awarded between 1901 and 2000, 65.4% of Nobel Prize Laureates have identified Christianity in its various forms as their religious preference (423 prizes). Overall, Christians have won a total of 78.3% of all the Nobel Prizes in Peace, 72.5% in Chemistry, 65.3% in Physics, 62% in Medicine, 54% in Economics and 49.5% of all Literature awards.”
By all means disparage Christianity if that’s what you need to do, but at least take the trouble to find out the names of the stellar luminaries you are disparaging. Ask yourself, in all honesty, if your own contributions to human welfare have been greater than those provided by renowned Christians—I pick out their names at random—like Pascal, Mozart, Beethoven, Tolstoy, Dostoevsky, JS Bach, Botticelli, Tintoretto, Velazqez, Michaelangelo, Milton, Leonardo da Vinci, Copernicus, Galileo, Leibniz, Lavoisier, Marconi, Mendel, Tielhard de Chardin, Swedenborg, Albertus Magnus, Thomas More, JRR Tolkien, William Tyndale, William Wilberforce, Dietrich Bohhoeffer, Meister Eckhart, Erasmus, St Teresa of Avila, Joan of Arc, Florence Nightingale, and a thousand other illustrious names one could invoke in a long litany of praise.
The glory that was Greece and the grandeur that was Rome had its culmination in the magnificent achievements of Europe and its people over the centuries. Whatever has been greatest in the last 2000 years of European civilization since Golgotha, and whatever bears the stamp of its transcendent genius, was nurtured in the rich soil of Christianity. Europe would be a dead husk, a barren desert plunged in spiritual darkness, were it not for its Christian heritage.
The fate of Western civilization now lies in the balance and is threatened as never before. Abandoning Christianity, the source of our inner strength, would be a recipe for disaster and only hasten our doom.
Scene: The Plaça de Sant Roc in Sabadell, a city in Catalonia, Spain, nestling on the banks of the lazy River Ripoli with its orange orchards and flour mills. Here you will find a few local musicians, in the market square, playing the most inspired music ever composed in the history of our planet. It is the Ode to Joy from the finale of Ludwig van Beethoven’s majestic Ninth Symphony (1824).
Never before had mankind enjoyed the privilege of listening to such supernaturally sublime music—music utterly steeped in the ethos of Christianity out of which it arose, and whose numinous beauty has haunted even the minds of the most devout atheists.
Listen to it now and reflect: Christianity gave us this precious gift. No neo-pagan, no humanist, no atheist or nihilist has ever produced a note of music to match this. Nor ever will.
-  Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Lectures on the Philosophy of World History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1975 and 1998), 35.
-  https://www.veteranstoday.com/2015/08/05/vladimir-putin-the-new-world-order-worships-satan/; https://www.veteranstoday.com/2016/05/03/soros-practical-reason-and-the-world-wide-criminal-organization-part-ii/; https://www.veteranstoday.com/2016/04/27/dark-lord-soros-meets-charles-darwin-part-i/; https://www.veteranstoday.com/2016/01/06/metaphysics-of-the-new-world-order-contempt-for-morality-and-practical-reason/; https://www.veteranstoday.com/2013/11/08/social-darwinism-einstein-and-determinism/.
-  William L. Pierce, Who We Are (Revisionist Books, 2014), Kindle edition.
-  Stephen Hawking and Roger Penrose, The Nature of Space and Time (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996), 20. For further studies, see John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler, The Anthropic Cosmological Principle (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988); Martin Rees, Just Six Numbers: The Deep Forces That Shape The Universe (New York: Basic Books, 2000).
-  Alex Vilenkin, Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes (New York: Hill and Wang, 2006), 176.
-  John Lennox, “Challenges from Science,” Ravi Zacharias, Beyond Opinion, 118.
-  Daniel Dennett, Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon (New York: Penguin Books, 2006), 244.
-  Nick Pollard, “The Simple Answer,” Third Way, April 1995, 16-19.
-  Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow, The Grand Design (New York: Bantam Books, 2010), 180.
-  P. W. Atkins, Creation Revisited (New York: W. H. Freeman & Company, 1993), 143.
-  John Lennox, God and Stephen Hawking (London: Lion Books, 2011), Kindle edition.
-  Michael Ruse, Darwinism as Religion: What Literature Tells Us About Evolution (New York: Oxford University Press, 2017).
-  Pierce, Who We Are (Revisionist Books, 2014), Kindle edition.
-  E. Michael Jones, “The Rise and Fall of the New Atheism,” Culture Wars, October 2017.
-  E. Michael Jones, “Ethnos Needs Logos: or Why I spent three days in Guadalajara trying to convince David Duke to become a Catholic,” Culture Wars, June 2015.
-  Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: The Power and Place (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 54.
-  Ibid., 342.
-  See for example Janet Browne, The Quotable Darwin (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2018), 191.
-  For further studies on this, see Gertrude Himmelfarb, Victorian Minds: A Study of Intellectuals in Crisis and Ideologies in Transition (Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1952 and 1968).
-  Darwin, The Descent of Man, 112.
-  James Rachels, Created from Animals: The Moral Implications of Darwinism (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990).
-  Michael Ruse, The Darwinian Paradigm: Essays on its History, Philosophy, and Religious Implications (New York: Routledge, 1989), 268-269.
-  Quoted in Janet Browne, Charles Darwin: A Biography, vol. 2 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002), 54.
-  Pierce, Who We Are, Kindle edition.
-  G. K. Chesterton, Orthodoxy (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996), 52-53.
-  Quoted in Himmelfarb, Victorian Minds, 319.
-  Charles Darwin, On the Origin of Species (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009), 429.
-  For further study on this, see for example Richard A. Soloway, Demography and Degeneration: Eugenics and the Decline of Birthrate in Twentieth-Century Britain (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1990); Robert C. Bannister, Social Darwinism: Science and Myth in Anglo-American Social Thought (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979); Paul A. Lombardo, ed., A Century of Eugenics in America (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2011); Three Generations, No Imbeciles: Eugenics, the Supreme Court, and Buck v. Bell (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008); Nancy Ordover, American Eugenics: Race, Queer Anatomy, and the Science of Nationalism (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003); Edward J. Larson, Sex, Race, and Science: Eugenics in the Deep South (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995); Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the Uses of Human Heredity (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1998); Alison Bashford and Philippa Levine, eds., The Oxford Handbook of the History of Eugenics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2010); Gunnar Broberg and Nils Roll-Hansen, Eugenics and the Welfare State: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Finland (East Lansing: Michigan State University, 2005); Mike Hawkins, Social Darwinism in European and American Thought, 1860-1945: Nature as Model and Nature as Threat (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997);. Peter Dickens, Social Darwinism (Buckingham: Open University Press, 2000).
-  Aristotle, The Nicomachean Ethics (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 103.
-  Ibid.
-  Ibid., 106.
-  Ibid., 112.
-  Ibid., 106.
-  Ibid., 115.
-  Ibid., 117.
-  Here is how it goes. How did it survive? Well, because it is the fittest. How do you know it is the fittest? Because it survived! People like Michael Shermer try to circumvent that tautology by saying that “Sometimes tautologies are the beginning of science, but they are never the end. Gravity can be tautological, but its reference is justified by the way this theory allows scientists to accurately predict physical effects and phenomena.” Michael Shermer, Why People Believe Weird Things (New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1997), 143. Perhaps chemist and Nobel Prize winner Manfred Eigen would have had a good laugh about those guys trying to circumvent what one ought to call a square circle. Eigen wrote: “One day my Japanese colleague and friend, Motoo Kimura, came to me and asked me [a] question. He said, as I remember, ‘Manfred, shouldn’t we reformulate the Darwinian principle as ‘the survival of the luckiest’? My answer was: ‘Yes, Motoo, we may do so; but then we have to add that the ‘luckiest’ always has to be a member of the very elite club of the fittest.’” Manfred Eigen, From Strange Simplicity to Complex Familiarity: A Treatise on Matter, Information, Life and Thought (New York: Oxford University Press, 2013), 195.
-  Quoted in E. Michael Jones, Barren Metal: A History of Capitalism as the Conflict Between Labor and Usury (South Bend: Fidelity Press, 2014), 489-490.
-  Immanuel Kant, Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1959), 39.
-  Immanuel Kant, Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals (New York: Torchbooks, 1964), 390.
-  Browne, Charles Darwin, 392.
-  Ibid.
-  Adrian Desmond and James Moore, Darwin: The Life of a Tormented Evolutionist (New York: W. W. Norton, 1991), xvii.
-  For further studies on this, see Peter J. Bowler and David Knight, Charles Darwin: The Man and His Influence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), 183-184.
-  Charles Darwin, The Descent of Man (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1981), 162.
-  Bowler and Knight, Charles Darwin, 183-184.
-  See for example Frans de Waal and Stephen Macedo, Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006); Daniel Dennett, Freedom Evolves (New York: Penguin Books, 2003).
-  Bowler and Knight, Charles Darwin, 85.
-  Adrian Desmond, James Moore, and Janet Browne, Charles Darwin (New York: Oxford University Press, 2007), 38.
-  Friedrich Nietzsche, The Portable Nietzsche (New York: Penguin Books, 1976), 515–6; see also Will Durant, The Story of Philosophy (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1926 and 1961), 401-402.
-  Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Human Emotion (New York: Kensington Publishing, 1985), 18-21.
-  Jean-Paul Sartre, Being and Nothingness (New York: Philosophical Library, 1956), 615.
-  See Paul Johnson, Intellectuals: From Marx and Tolstoy to Sartre and Chomsky (New York: HarperCollins, 1987), chapter 9.
-  Sartre, Existentialism and Human Emotions, 22.
-  Friedrich Nietzsche, The Portable Nietzsche (New York: Penguin, 1954 and 1982), 47.
-  E. Michael Jones, Dionysos Rising: The Birth of Cultural Revolution Out of the Spirit of Music (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1994), chapter 2.
-  Ibid., 58.
-  Griffin, Dead’s Man Deeds, 58.
-  See Nigel Rodgers and Mel Thompson, Philosophers Behaving Badly (London & Chicago: Peter owen Publishers, 2004), 69.
-  Arthur Schopenhauer, Essays on Aphorisms (New York: Penguin, 1970), 51-53.
-  Rodgers and Thompson, Philosophers Behaving Badly, 49.
-  Robert S. Griffin, The Fame of a Dead Man’s Deeds An Up-Close Portrait of White Nationalist William Pierce (Bloomington: 1st Book Library, 2001), 58.
-  Walter A. Kaufmann, Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974), 101.
-  Ibid., 97.
-  Kaufmann, Nietzsche, 102.
-  See E. Michael Jones, “The Great Satan and Me: Reflections on Iran and Postmodernism’s Faustian Pact,” Culture Wars, July/August 2015.
-  Ruse, Darwinism as Religion, Kindle edition.
-  For a scholarly treatise on the Crusades, see Rodney Stark, Bearing False Witness: Debunking Centuries of Anti-Catholic History (West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Press, 2016).
-  For further studies, see Jean-Louis Panné and Andrzej Paczkowski, The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999); Golfo Alexopoulos, Illness and Inhumanity in Stalin’s Gulag (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2017); David Brandenberger, Propaganda State in Crisis: Soviet Ideology, Indoctrination, and Terror under Stalin, 1927-1941 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2012); Jörg Baberowski, Scorched Earth: Stalin’s Reign of Terror (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2016); Robert Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); Frank Dikötter, Mao’s Great Famine: The History of China’s Most Devastating Catastrophe, 1958-62 (London: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2010); Miron Dolot, Execution by Hunger: The Hidden Holocaust (New York: W. W. Norton, 1987); Zhou Xun, Forgotten Voices of Mao’s Great Famine, 1958-1962: An Oral History (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2013).
-  For an analysis of Haldane’s position, see E. Michael Jones, “The Rise and Fall of the New Atheism,” Culture Wars, October 2015.
-  Sir Fred Hoyle came to similar conclusions. After examining the mathematical implausibility of life occurring in the universe by chance (Hoyle and Chandra Wickramasinghe calculated that the probability of life having originated on the earth at random is astronomically small: 1040,000!), he concluded: “common sense interpretation of the facts suggests that a super-intellect has monkeyed with physics, as well as with chemistry and biology, and that there are no blind forces worth speaking about in nature. The numbers one calculates from the facts seem to me so overwhelming as to put this conclusion almost beyond question.” Fred Hoyle, “The Universe,” Engineering and Science, November 1981.
-  For historical studies, see David C. Lindberg, The Beginnings of Western Science: The European Scientific Traditions in Philosophical, Religious, and Institutional Context, 600 B.C. to A.D. 1450 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992); Edward Grant, Science and Religion, 400 B.C. to A.D. 1550: From Aristotle to Copernicus (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004); The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional and Intellectual Contexts (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996); Ronald L. Numbers, ed., Galileo Goes to Jail and Other Myths About Science and Religion (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009); Stephen M. Barr, Modern Physics and Ancient Faith (Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame, 2003); Peter J. Bowler and Iwan Rhys Morus, Making Modern Science: A Historical Survey (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2005).
-  See E. Michael Jones, Benedict’s Rule: The Rise of Ethnicity and the Fall of Rome (South Bend: Culture Wars, 2012), Kindle edition.
-  See Rodney Stark, For the Glory of God: How Monotheism Led to Reformations, Science, Witch-Hunts, and the End of Slavery (Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2003); The Rise of Christianity: How the Obscure, Marginal Jesus Movement Became the Dominant Religious Force in the Western World in a Few Centuries (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1996); One True God: Historical Consequences of Monotheism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 203); Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge, Future of Religion: Secularization, Revival and Cult Formation (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1985).