The American Revolution
In order to understand how men who obtained control of the Bank of England, and the British National Debt, also obtained control of the trade and commerce, and the monetary system of Britain’s American colonies, it will be sufficient if we pick up the threads of the story at the time Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790) went over to England to represent the interests of the men who had been associated with him in building up the prosperity of the American Colonies.
Robert L. Owen, former chairman, Committee on Banking and Currency, United States Senate, explains the matter on page 98 of Senate Document No. 23. He states that when associates of the Rothschild’s asked Franklin how he accounted for the prosperous conditions prevailing in the colonies, he replied : “That is simple — In the Colonies we issue our own money. It is called Colonial Script — We issue it in proper proportion to the demands of trade and industry.”
Robert L. Owen remarked that not very long after the Rothschilds heard of this they realized the opportunity to exploit the situation with considerable profit to themselves. The obvious thing to do was to have a law passed prohibiting the Colonial officials from issuing their own money and make it compulsory for them to obtain the money they required through the medium of the Banks. Amschel Mayer Rothschild was still in Germany but he was supplying the British Government with Mercenary Troops at £8 per man. Such was his influence that in 1764 he succeeded, through the Directors of the Bank of England, in having laws passed in accordance with his dictates.
The authorities in the Colonies had to discard their Script money. They had to mortgage the Colonial assets and securities to the Bank of England in order to borrow the money they needed to carry on business. Referring to those facts Benjamin Franklin stated. “In one year the conditions were so reversed that the era of prosperity ended, and a depression set in, to such an extent that the streets of the Colonies were filled with unemployed.” Franklin stated : “The Bank of England refused to give more than 50 per cent of the face value of the Script when turned over as required by law. The circulating medium of exchange was thus reduced by half”.
Mr. Franklin disclosed the primary cause of the Revolution when he said: “The Colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters had it not been that England took away from the Colonies their money, which created unemployment and dissatisfaction.”
Dissatisfaction became general, but very few Colonials realized that the taxation, and other economic sanctions being imposed on them, were the results of the activities of a small group of International Gangsters, who had succeeded in obtaining control of the British Treasury, after they had obtained control of the Bank of England. It has already been shown how they jumped Britain’s National Debt from £1,250,000 in 1694 to £16,000,000 in 1698, and increased it progressively to £885,000,000 by 1815, and £22,503,532,372 by 1945.
On April 19th 1775, the first armed clashes between British and Colonials took place at Lexington and Concord. On May 10th the Second Continental Congress met at Philadelphia and George Washington was placed at the head of the Naval and Military Force. He took command at Cambridge. On July 4th, 1776 Congress adopted the Declaration of Independence.
For the next seven years the International money-lenders urged and financed the Colonial War. The Rothschilds made plenty of money supplying the British with German Hessian soldiers with which to fight the Colonists. The average Britisher had no quarrel with his American cousins. He secretly sympathized with them.
On October 19th, 1781 the British Commander, General Cornwallis, surrendered his whole army, including what was left of the Hessians. On September 3rd, 1783 the Independence of the United States was recognized by the Peace Treaty of Paris. The only real losers were the British people. Their National Debt had been increased tremendously and the International money-lenders (who were in reality the Secret Power behind the World Revolutionary Movement) had succeeded in the first stage of the long range plans towards the dissolution of the British Empire.
The agents of the international bankers worked industriously to prevent unity. By keeping the various states in America separated it was much easier to exploit them. To prove the continuity of the Foreign money-lenders meddling in the affairs of every nation it is sufficient to record that the Foundling Fathers of the United States meeting at Philadelphia in 1787 talked over the importance of bringing in some form of legislation which would protect them against the exploitation of the International Bankers.
The agents of the international bankers organized active lobbying. They used intimidation. But despite all their efforts paragraph 5, of Section 8, of the First article of the new American Constitution read : “CONGRESS SHALL HAVE THE POWER TO COIN MONEY AND REGULATE THE VALUE THEREOF”.
The vast majority of the United States’ citizens consider the Constitution an honoured, and almost sacred, document. All laws passed since then are SUPPOSED to conform with the provisions of the Constitution. The fact that subsequent legislation dealing with finance and currency, have been in violation of the provisions laid down in Article 1, Section 8, paragraph 5, proves how powerful the bankers have been in the political field.
The history of how the international money-lenders obtained economic control of the United States in order to further their long range plans is decidedly interesting.
Using the good old reliable Joint Stock Company principle, the Directors of the Bank of England appointed one of their hirelings named Alexander Hamilton, to represent their interests in the United States. In 1780 this man, a supposed patriot, proposed the establishment of a Federal Bank. It was to be owned by PRIVATE INTERESTS as an alternative to those who insisted the issue and control of money should remain in the hands of the government elected by the people. Alexander Hamilton suggested that his proposed Federal Bank be capitalized for $12,000,000. The Bank of England would provide $10,000,000, the remaining $2,000,000 would be allocated to wealthy people in America. In 1783 Alexander Hamilton, and his business partner Robert Morris, organized the Bank of America. As Financial Superintendent of the Continental Congress, Morris was able to reduce the United States Treasury to a state of indigence by the end of seven years of war. This is another illustration of how the Secret Power use wars to further their plan for the W.R.M. To make absolutely sure the United States’ Financial cupboard was bare, Hamilton transferred the last $250,000 from the Treasury Department, and invested it in the Bank’s Capital Stock. The directors of the Bank of America were agents of the Bank of England. The Illuminati controlled both. The fact that they sold their souls to Satan in order to gain the world is the truth they wish to conceal.
The Fathers of American Independence realized that if the Directors of the Bank of England obtained monopolistic control of America’s money system they would recover any money they had lost by the simple process of mortgage and foreclosure. The net result of this struggle for economic control of the nation was that Congress refused to grant the Bank of America a charter.
Benjamin Franklin died in 1790 and the agents of the International Jewish money-lenders immediately made another bid to obtain control of America’s finances. They succeeded in having Alexander Hamilton appointed Secretary of the Treasury. Hamilton had the Government charter the bank his principals had been clamouring for. It was then a simple matter to usurp the rights to issue currency based on public and private debts. The most forceful arguments the bankers’ agents had used to defeat their opposition was that money issued by Congress, on the credit of the Nation, would be valueless in dealing abroad; while money obtained on loan from the bankers, at interest, would be welcomed as legal security in all kinds of transactions. Thus the public fell prey to the exploitation of the men who professed to be their friends. Alexander Hamilton, and Morris, were never more than hirelings of the international money-lenders.
The new Bank was capitalized for $35,000,000. Of this amount $28,000,000 was subscribed by European bankers, which the Rothschilds controlled. It is suspected that the international bankers decided that Hamilton knew too much and couldn’t be trusted any longer. He was inveigled into a duel with an expert named Aaron Burr, who acted as his executioner.
While American citizens were used as Front men by the international bankers, policy was determined in Europe. The Rothschild interests gave orders that the American bankers were to extend almost unlimited credit for good security and put plenty of money into circulation. The propaganda media played up on the highest notes of optimism. Prosperity was assured. The Americans were destined to become the greatest people on Earth. Everybody was urged to invest in the future of his great nation.
When everyone of any worth had mortgaged himself to the hilt, orders were given to tighten up credits, recall outstanding loans, and reduce the amount of money in circulation. An artificial depression was created. Citizens could not meet their financial obligations and the Money Barons obtained millions of dollars worth of property, and securities, at a fraction of their normal value. Admittedly everything was done by due process of law, but Al Capone and his gangsters, were gentlemen in comparison with the international bankers.
Many great Americans have commented on this phase of the history of the United States, but their expressed opinions don’t seem to have prevented their successors from falling into the same traps and pit-falls. John Adams (1735-1826) wrote to Thomas Jefferson in 1787. He said : “All the perplexities, confusion and distress arise not from the defects of the Constitution, not from want of honour and virtue so much as, from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit and circulation.”
Thomas Jefferson said : “I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. Already they have raised up a money aristocracy that has set governments at defiance. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs”.
Andrew Jackson said : “If Congress has a right, under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to use by themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.”
These outspoken comments warned the International Bankers to expect serious opposition when their Charter for the Bank of the United States ran out in 1811. To prepare for this eventuality Amschel Mayer Rothschild, had obtained absolute control of the Bank of England in order to strengthen his control of the World’s economy. His son Nathan had been specially trained to undertake this tremendous task as previously mentioned. Nathan proved to have exceptional talent and ability for financial affairs. He trained himself only to think in terms of profits, just as the professional politician thinks only in terms of votes. In 1798, at the early age of twenty-one, he went over from Germany to secure control of the Bank of England. He was entrusted with the modest sum of £20,000. To demonstrate his financial wizardry he speculated, and in a comparatively short time [3 years], he increased his capital to £60,000. By 1811, when the matter of the renewal of the Charter for the Bank of America was due for a hearing, Nathan Rothschild was in control of the International Bankers. He issued his ultimatum. “Either the application for renewal of the charter is granted or the United States will find itself involved in a most disastrous war.”
President Andrew Jackson didn’t believe the International Bankers would foment a war. He decided to call their bluff. He told them bluntly : “You are a den of thieves — vipers. I intend to rout you out, and by the Eternal God I will rout you out.” But President Jackson had underestimated the power of the Rothschilds. Nathan Rothschild issued orders. “Teach these impudent Americans a lesson. Bring them back to Colonial status.”
The British Government, always subservient to the Bank of England, launched the war of 1812. This war was calculated to impoverish the United States to such an extent the legislators would have to plead for peace, and seek financial aid. Nathan Rothschild stipulated that no financial aid would be forthcoming except in return for the renewal of the charter for the Bank of America.
Nathan Rothschild’s plan worked to perfection. It mattered not to him, how many men were killed and wounded; how many women were widowed; how many children were made orphans; how many people were rendered destitute. He and his co-conspirators rejoiced in the fact that they had achieved their objective and in so doing they had created more and more dissatisfaction amongst the masses of the people who blamed the blundering policies of their own governments, while the Secret Power behind the scenes remained unsuspected by all except a very few people.
In 1816 The United States Congress granted the renewal of the Charter for the Bank of the United States as requested. There are many authorities who state quite frankly that the Members of Congress were bribed, or threatened, into voting for the legislation which put the American people back into financial bondage.
The men who plot and plan to secure economic and political control of the world don’t hesitate to prostitute Love to achieve their ends, any more than they hesitate to order murder committed to rid them of men who stand in their way. In 1857 the marriage of Lenora, daughter of Lionel Rothschild, to her cousin Alfonso of Paris (they believe in keeping things within the family) brought many international personages to London, England, where the ceremony was performed. Benjamin Disraeli, the noted English Statesman, who was made Prime Minister in 1868 and again in 1874, was invited to be present.
Disraeli is reported to have said during his speech on that memorable occasion — “Under this roof are the heads of the family of Rothschild, a name famous in every capital of Europe, and every division of the globe. If you like we shall divide the United States into two parts, one for you James, and one for you Lionel. Napoleon will do exactly — and all that I advise him to do; and to Bismarck will be suggested such an intoxicating programme as to make him our abject slave.”
History records that Judah P. Benjamin, a Rothschild relative, was appointed as their professional strategist in America. The American Civil War, which split the Union in two, became an accomplished fact.
Napoleon III was persuaded by the Bankers to extend his French Empire into Mexico. The British Government was persuaded that the Northern States could be made into a colony again. The Civil War in the United States was an economic war brought about by the International Bankers. By applying economic pressure it was a simple matter to aggravate the economic difficulties the Northern States encountered after the slaves had been given their freedom. Abraham Lincoln admitted “No nation can long endure half free and half slaves.”
The international bankers loaned unlimited credit to all forces engaged by the South fighting the forces of the North. They loaned Napoleon III, 201,500,000 francs for his Mexican campaign. When the Confederacy needed assistance in 1863 the Powers-that-be offered Napoleon Texas and Louisiana in exchange for French intervention against the Northern States.
The Tzar of Russia heard of these preposterous offers and he informed the Governments of England and France that should they actively intervene, and give military aid to the South, Russia would consider such action as a declaration of war against the Imperial Russian Empire. To strengthen his ultimatum Russian warships were sent to New York and San Francisco and placed at Lincoln’s disposal.
When the Northern authorities found themselves in financial difficulties the International Bankers didn’t refuse to loan the money. They simply stipulated that the rate of interest to the Northern States would be 28 per cent. After all, they were in business as money-lenders. An important aspect of the American Civil War is that it would in all probability have reached a conclusion in a few months had not the international money-lenders made fresh loans. These loans were usury. They were based on terms and rates of interest which were calculated to give international bankers control of the economy of the whole country. When they considered it time they ended the war.
Lincoln tried to break the financial bonds with which his Northern States were bound. To him Article 1, Section 8, paragraph 5 of the Constitution was sufficient authority. He disregarded the bankers’ overtures. He caused $450,000,000 of Honest money to be printed. He placed the Credit of the Nation as security behind this money. The International Bankers retaliated by causing a Bill to be passed through Congress ruling that Lincoln’s Greenbacks would not be accepted as payment of interest on government bonds nor import duties. The Bankers caused Lincoln’s money to become almost valueless by refusing to accept the Greenbacks except at a heavy discount. Having beaten down the value of Greenback dollars to 30 cents they bought them all in. They then turned around and bought government bonds with them demanding dollar for dollar value. In this way they overcame a serious threat and made 70 cents on the dollar.
An article, inspired by the International Bankers, appeared in the London Times. It concerned Abraham Lincoln’s issue of Greenbacks. It said : “If this mischievous financial policy, which has its origin in North America, shall become endurated down to a fixture, then that Government will furnish its own money without cost. It will pay off debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains, and wealth of all countries will go to North America. THAT COUNTRY MUST BE DESTROYED OR IT WILL DESTROY EVERY MONARCHY ON THE GLOBE.”
The Hazard Circular was supplied to all banking interests from overseas. It read “Slavery is likely to be abolished by war power. This, I and my European friends are in favour of, because slavery is but the owning of labour, and carries with it the care of the labourers, while the European plan, led on by England, is that capital shall control labour by controlling wages.
“The great debt, that Capitalists will see is made out of the war, must be used to control the value of money. To accomplish this government bonds must be used as a banking basis. We are now waiting for the Secretary of the Treasury of the United States to make that recommendation. It will not do to allow Greenbacks, as they are called, to circulate as money for any length of time as we cannot control that. But we can control the bonds, and through them, the banking issues.”
The Bankers financed the election campaigns of enough Senators, and Congressmen, to assure them that the National Banking Act would become law. The National Banking Act did become law in 1863 despite the vigorous protests of President Lincoln. Thus the International Bankers won another round. The people of the world had been brought one step nearer to economic, political and religious bondage.
On the letter head of Rothschilds’ Brothers, Bankers, London, England, under date of June 25th, 1863, the following was written to Messrs. Ikelheimer, Morton and Vandergould, No. 3 Wall Street, New York, U.S.A.
Dear Sirs :
A Mr. John Sherman has written us from a town in Ohio, U.S.A., as to profits that may be made in the National Banking business, under a recent act of your Congress; a copy of this Act accompanies this letter. Apparently this Act has been drawn up on the plan formulated by the British Bankers Association, and by that Association recommended to our American friends, as one that, if enacted into law, would prove highly profitable to the banking fraternity throughout the world.
Mr. Sherman declares that there has never been such an opportunity for capitalists to accumulate money as that presented by this act. It gives the National Bank almost complete control of the National finance. The few who understand the system he says will either be so interested in its profits, or so dependent on its favours, that there will be no opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of the people, mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantages that capital derives from the system, will bear its burden without complaint, and perhaps without even suspecting that the system is inimical to their interests …
Your respectful servants,
In reply to the above letter Messrs. Ikelheimer, Morton and Vandergould replied :
Dear Sirs :
We beg to acknowledge receipt of your letter of June 25th, in which you refer to a communication received from Honourable John Sherman, of Ohio, with reference to the advantages, and profits, of an American investment under the provisions of the National Banking Act.
Mr. Sherman possesses, in a marked degree, the distinguishing characteristics of a successful financier. His temperament is such that whatever his feelings may be they never cause him to lose sight of the main chance. He is young, shrewd and ambitious. He has fixed his eyes upon the Presidency of the United States and already is a member of Congress (he has financial ambitions too). He rightfully thinks he has everything to gain by being friendly with men, and institutions, having large financial resources, and which at times are not too particular in their methods, either of obtaining government aid, or protecting themselves against unfriendly legislation.
As to the organization of the National Bank here, and the nature and profits of such investments, we beg leave to refer to our printed circulars enclosed herein, viz :
Any number of persons not less than five may organize a National Banking Corporation.
Except in cities having 6,000 inhabitants or less, a National Bank cannot have less than $1,000,000 capital.
They are private corporations organized for private gain, and select their own officers and employees.
They are not subject to control of State Laws, except as Congress may from time to time provide.
They may receive deposits and loan the same for their own benefit. They can buy and sell bonds and discount paper and do general banking business.
To start a National Bank on the scale of $1,000,000 will require purchase of that amount (par value) of U.S. Government Bonds. U.S. Bonds can now be purchased at 50 per cent discount, so that a bank of $1,000,000 capital can be started at this time for only $500,000. These bonds must be deposited with the United States Treasury at Washington as security for the National Bank currency, that will be furnished by the government to the bank.
The United States Government will pay 6 per cent interest on all bonds in gold, the interest being paid semi-annually. It will be seen that at the present price of bonds the interest paid by the government itself is 12 per cent in gold on all money invested.
The United States Government on having the bonds aforesaid deposited with the Treasurer, on the strength of such security will furnish National currency to the bank depositing the bonds, at an annual interest of only one per cent per annum.
The currency is printed by the U.S. Government in a form so like Greenbacks that the people do not detect the difference. Although the currency is but a promise of the bank to pay.
The demand for money is so great that this money can be readily loaned to the people across the counter of the Bank at a discount at the rate of 10 per cent at thirty or sixty days time, making it about 12 per cent interest on the currency.
The interest on the bonds, plus the interest on the currency which the bond secures, plus the incidentals of the business, ought to make the gross earnings of the bank amount to from 28 per cent to 33 and one-third per cent.
National Banks are privileged to increase and contract their currency at will, and of course, can grant or withhold loans, as they may see fit. As the banks have a National organization and can easily act together in withholding loans or extending them, it follows that they can by united action in refusing to make loans cause a stringency in the money market, and in a single week or even a single day cause a decline in all products of the country.
National Banks pay no taxes on their bonds, nor on their capital, nor on their deposits.
Requesting that you will regard this as strictly confidential.
Most respectfully yours,
IKELHEIMIER, MORTON and VANDERGOULD
Following the exchange of the above letters the American Bankers put into practice once again the manipulations mentioned. They reaped another rich harvest by foreclosures on property and securities left with them as security for loans, which their clients could not repay because the Bankers, acting in unity, withdrew currency, and restricted credits, to a degree that made it impossible for the vast majority of borrowers to meet their financial obligations.
Abraham Lincoln felt that after this sad, and costly, experience the American people might be ready to listen to sense so, once again, he launched a public attack upon the bankers.
In an address he said : “I see in the near future a crisis approaching that unnerves me, and causes me to tremble for the safety of my Country; corporations have been enthroned, an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavour to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people, until the wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed.”
Shortly after making this momentous speech Abraham Lincoln was re-elected President but before he could have legislation enacted which would have curbed the avaricious practices of the bankers he was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth while attending a theatrical performance, on the night of April 14th, 1865. Very few Americans know why President Lincoln was assassinated. The true answer was found when investigators located a coded message amongst Booth’s effects. The key to that coded message was in possession of Judah P. Benjamin who was Rothschild’s agent in America. While the coded message had no direct bearing on the murder, it definitely established the contact Booth had with the International Bankers. Once again they remained hidden behind the scenes while the Jew, Booth, was blamed for the death of a great man. Had Abraham Lincoln lived he would most certainly have clipped the wings, and trimmed the sails, of the international moneylenders.
Before Lincoln was murdered, Salmon P. Chase, who was Secretary of the U.S. Treasury 1861-1864, stated publicly : “My agency in promoting the passage of the National Banking Act was the greatest financial mistake of my life. It has built up a monopoly which affects every interest in the country. It should be repealed, but before that can be accomplished the people will be arrayed on one side, and the banks on the other, in a contest such as we have never seen before in this country.”
In 1866 there were $1,906,687,770 in currency in circulation in the United States. This represented $50.46 per capita. At the end of 1876 there was only about $605,250,000 in circulation representing a per capita amount of $14.60. The currency of the nation had been reduced by bank withdrawals to the extent of over $1,300,000,000. The importance of these figures will be better understood by the average man when he learns that the net result of the bankers policy was a total of 56,446 business failures representing a loss of $2,245,105,000 in cash investments. The larger proportion of the losses was incurred by mortgage foreclosures. In other words, by withdrawing currency and restricting credits the bankers had enriched themselves by well over $2,000,000,000 in a little over ten years. There is plenty of evidence to prove that the American Bankers and the European Bankers, have been affiliated ever since, and that the subsequent depressions were created by similar financial manipulations, as will be explained in other chapters.
1 Direct quotations from Senate Document No. 23 supports the above statements.
2 The Earl of Chatham and his son William Pitt (1769-1806) both denounced the policy of the international Money-Barons in regard to the Colonies prior to 1783. Young William Pitt was chosen by King George III to be Prime Minister because he convinced the King the money-lenders were involving European countries in wars to serve their own selfish purposes.
3 Just stop and think for a moment how far they have advanced that part of their plans since then. Jefferson and John Adams (Roosevelt’s kinsman) both became ardent Illuminists. This explains Roosevelt’s policy.
4 The fact that Franklin, Adams, and Jefferson all became members of the Illuminati and the fact that the Great Seal of America is actually the insignia of the Illuminati proves the power of the Synagogue of Satan.
5 It is just as impossible for half a World which employs paid labour and enjoys a high Standard of living to compete forever with the other half which employs slave labour under a Dictatorship.
6 This act of interference caused the International Bankers to decide to overthrow the Russian Government.
7 This is a typical example of the Illutninati’s double-talk. Monarchy really meant money lender.
8 For more detailed information on this angle of the world Revolutionary Movement read Lightning Over The Treasury Building by John R. Elsom and The Federal Reserve Conspiracy by Eustace Mullins.