The Khazar Jew‘s frequent equating of anti-Communism with so-called antiemitism is unfortunate in many ways. In the first place, it is most unfair to loyal American Jews. Charges of anti-Semitism are ab-surd, moreover, because the Khazar Jew is himself not a Semite (Chapter II, above). The blood of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob flows not at all (or to a sporadic degree, as from immigrant merchants, fugitives, etc.) in the veins of the Jews who have come to America from Eastern Europe. On the contrary, the blood of Old Testament people does flow in the veins of Palestine Arabs and others who live along the shores of the eastern Mediterranean. Palestinians, true descendants of Old Testament people, are refugees today from the barbarity of non Semitic Khazars, who are the rapers, not the inheritors, of the Holy Land!
Charges of anti-Semitism are usually made by persons of Khazar stock, but sometimes they are parrotedby shallow people, or people who bend to pressure in Protestant churches, in educational institutions, and elsewhere. Seeking the bubble reputation in the form of publicity, or lured by thirty pieces of silver, many big-time preachers have shifted the focus of their thinking from the everlasting life of St. John III, 16, to the no man spake openly of him of St. John VII, 13. In their effort to avoid giving offense to non- Christians, or for other reasons, many preachers have also placed their own brand of social-mindedness over individual character, their own conception of human welfare over human excellence, and, in summary, pale sociology over Almighty God (quotes from This morning by John Temple Graves, Charleston S.C., News and Courier, February 10, 1951).
Introduction by Gordon Duff
The text below is, at times, semi-literate and extreme. However, as you move into the 20th century, it becomes lucid and compelling. Much is focused on “the Jews” and, on the whole, there is some balance here though some language may offend.
For that I apologize.
However, several dozen concepts presented here, along with historical narratives that are, for the most part, supported with adequate sourcing, provide a look at World War I and World War II that now fits what we have long begun to accept, that both wars were needless. On the author:
“Dr. Beaty taught English at Southern Methodist University from 1919 to 1957. He earned his Ph.D. from Columbia University with post-graduate study at the University of Montpellier, France. A worldly man, Beaty served five years in military intelligence during WWII, rounding out his insider’s knowledge. His fingers were on the pulse of what ailed us then as now.”
Read with care, as always.
Review from Amazon.com:
This book is unique in that it not only discusses the internal decay and the external disasters which threaten the life of American people (in fact, of ALL the people), but diagnoses the growing cancer of which they are merely the symptoms. Going behind the iron curtain of propaganda, censorship and deception, the author, former Colonel of the Military Intelligence Service, gives to the reader the first comprehensive documented account of the origin, the scope, and the intentions of the “insidious forces working from within,” which are seeking to destroy Western civilization. “An honest and courageous dispeller of the fog of propaganda in which most minds seem to dwell.” – Lt. General P. A. Del Valle, USMC (ret.) “I think it ought to be compulsory reading in every public school in America.” – Senator William A. Langer, former Chairman, Judiciary Committee “This book is a magnificent contribution to those who would preserve our American ideals.” – Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond, USA (ret.)
To the mighty company of American soldiers, sailors, airmen, and marines whose graves are marked by white crosses far from home this book is dedicated with the solemn pledge that the Christian civilization of which they were the finest flower shall not die.
To the Reader
II. Russia and the Khazars
III. The Khazars Join the Democratic Party
IV. The “Unnecessary” War [WWII]
V. The Black Hood of Censorship
VI. The Foreign Policy of the Truman Administration
VII. Does the National Democratic Party Want War
VIII. Cleaning the Augean Stables
IX. America Can Still Be Free
The Iron Curtain Over America
by John Beaty
Copyright 1952 by John Beaty
Page 1 Preface
The Iron Curtain Over America
Lt. Gen, George E. Stratemeyer, USAF (ret.), says: I congratulate you on your book and the service you have performed for our country. If my health would permit it I would go on a continuos lecture tour gratis and preach your book and recommendations. My Iron Curtain Over America will be on loan continuously and I intend to recommend its reading in every letter I write.
Lt. Gen. Edward M. Almond, USA. (ret.), says: It is an inspiration to me to find an author with the courage and energy to research and to secure the publication of such information as you have assembled in order that the poorly informed average American may know wherein the real threats to our Country lurk.
Your book is a magnificent contribution to those who would preserve our American ideals. I think it ought to be compulsory reading in every public school in America. Senator William A. Langer, former Chairman, Judiciary Committee.
Vice Admiral T. G. W. Settle, U.S.N. (ret.), says: The Iron Curtain Over America is a most pertinent and excellently presented treatise on the cancer on our national set-up. I hope this book has had, and will have, the widest possible dissemination, particularly to our leaders-in Washington, and in industry and the press, and that our leaders who are uncontaminated will have their serious attention engaged by it.
Lt, General P. A. Del Valle, USMC (ret), says: I am impelled to write to you to express my admiration of your great service to the Nation in writing this truly magnificent book. No American who has taken the oath of allegiance can afford to miss it, and I heartily recommend it as an honest and courageous despeller of the fog of propaganda in which most minds seem to dwell.
John Beaty… The author of The Iron Curtain Over America has written, or collaborated on, a dozen books. His texts ave been used in more than seven hundred colleges and universities, and his historical novel, Swords in he Dawn, published originally in New York, had London and Australian editions, and was adopted for state-wide use in the public schools of Texas. His education (M.A., University of Virginia; Ph.D., Columbia University; post-graduate study, University of Montpellier, France ), his travel in Europe and Asia, and his five years with the Military Intelligence Service in World War II rounded out the background for the reading and research (1946-1951) which resulted in The Iron Curtain Over America.
To The Reader…
Many authors of books on the current world scene have been White House confidants, commanders of armies, and others whose authority is indicated by their official or military titles. Such authors need no introduction to the public, A Prospective reader is entitled, however, to know something of the background and experience of an unknown or little-known writer who is offering a comprehensive volume on a great and important subject.
In the spring of 1926, the author was selected by the Albert Kahn Foundation to investigate and report on world affairs. Introduced by preliminary correspondence and provided with numerous letters of introduction to persons prominent in government, politics, and education, he gained something more than a tourist‘s reaction to the culture and institutions, the movements and the pressures in the twenty-nine countries which he visited. In several countries, including great powers, he found conditions and attitudes significantly different from the conception of them which prevailed in the United States. Though previously successful in deposing of his writings, he was unable, however, to get his observations on the world situation published, except as the Annual Report of the Foundation and in his friendly home special foreign correspondent, and in the Southwest Review, in whose files his ―Race and Population, Their Relation to
World Peace can still be seen as a virtual prognosis of the oncoming war.
After his return to America in the autumn of 1927, the author kept abreast of world attitudes by correspondence with many of the friends he had made in his travels and by rereading French, German, and Italian news periodicals, as well as certain English language4 periodicals emanating from Asia. World trends continued to run counter to what the American people were allowed to know, and a form of virtual censorship blacked out efforts at imparting information. For instance, though the author‘s textbooks continued to sell well and though his novel Swords in the Dawn (1937) was favorably received, hes book Image of Life (Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1940 ), which attempted to show Americans the grave world-wide significance of the degradation of their cultural standards, was granted, as far as he knows, not a single comment in a book review or a book column in New York. Indeed, the book review periodical with the best reputation for full coverage failed to list Image of Life even under Books Received.
In 1940 – as our President was feverishly and secretly preparing to enter World War II and publicly deny ing any such purpose – the author, a reserve captain, as alerted, and in 1941 was called to active duty in the Military Intelligence Service of the War Department General Staff. His first assignment was to write,
or help write, short pamphlets on military subjects, studies of several campaigns including those in Western Europe and Norway, and three bulletins on the frustration of an enemy‘s attempts at sabotage and subversion.
In 1942, the author became a major and Chief of the Historical Section (not the later Historical Branch of the War Department Special Staff). In his new capacity, he supervised a group of experts who prepared a current history of events in the various strategically important areas of the world. Also, he was one of the
two editors of the daily secret G-2 Report, which was issued each noon to give persons in high places, including the White House, the world picture as it existed four hours earlier. While Chief of the Historical Section, the author wrote three widely circulated studies of certain phases of the German – Russian campaign.
In 1943 – during which year he was also detailed to the General Staff Corps and promoted to lieutenant colonel the author was made Chief of the Interview Section. In the next three years he interviewed more than two thousand persons, most of whom were returning from some high mission, some delicate assignment,
or some deed of valor – often in a little-known region of the world. Those interviewed included military personnel in rank from private first class to four stars, diplomatic officials from vice-consuls to ambassadors and special representatives of the President, senators and congressmen returning from overseas investigations, missionaries, explorers, businessmen, refugees, and journalists – among the latter, Raymond Clapper and Ernie Pyle, who were interviewed between their next to the last and their last and fatal voyages. These significant people were presented sometimes individually but usually to assembled groups of officers and other experts from the various branches of G-2, from other General Staff divisions, from each of the technical services, and from other components interested in vital information which could be had by
interview perhaps sex weeks before being received in channeled reports. In some cases the author increased his knowledge of a given area or topic by consulting documents suggested during an interview.
Thus, from those he interviewed, from those specialists for whom he arranged the interviews, and from
study in which he had expert guidance, he had a unique opportunity for learning the history, resources,
ideologies, capabilities, and intentions of the great foreign powers. In its most essential aspects, the pic-
ture was terrifyingly different from the picture presented by our government to the American people!
After the active phase of the war was over, the author was offered three separate opportunities of further
service with the army – all of them interesting, all of them flattering. He wished, however, to return to his
home and his university and to prepare himself for trying again to give the American people the world sto-
ry as he had come to know it; consequently, after being advanced to the rank of colonel, he reverted to in-
active status, upon his won request, in December, 1946. Twice thereafter he was recalled for a summer of
active duty: in 1947 he wrote a short history of the Military Intelligence Service, and in 1949 he prepared
for the Army Field Forces an annotated reading list for officers in the Military Intelligence Reserve.
From 1946 to 1951 the author devoted himself to extending his knowledge of the apparently diverse but
actually interrelated events in the various strategic areas of the present-day world. The goal he set for him-
self was not merely to uncover the facts but to present them with such a body of documented proof that
their validity could not be questioned. Sustaining quotations for significant truths have thus been taken
from standard works of reference; from accepted historical writings; from government documents;
periodicals of wide public acceptance or of known accuracy in fields related to America‘s foreign policy;
and from contemporary writers and speakers of unquestioned standing.
The final product of a long period of travel, army service, and study is The Iron Curtain Over America. The
book is neither memoirs nor apology, but an objective presentation of things as they are. It differs from
many other pro-American books principally in that it not only exhibits the external and internal dangers
which threaten the survival of our country, but shows how they developed and why they continue to pla-
The roads we travel so briskly lead out of dim antiquity said General James G. Harbord, and we must
study the past because of its bearing on the living present and because it is our only guide for the future.
The author has thus turned on the light in certain darkened or dimmed out year tremendously significant
phases of the history of medieval and modern Europe. Since much compression was obligatory, and since
many of the facts will to most readers be wholly new and disturbing, Chapters I and II may be described as
hard reading. Even a rapid perusal of them, however, will prepare the reader for understanding better
the problems of our country as they are revealed in succeeding chapters.
In The Iron Curtain Over America authorities are cited not in a bibliography or in notes but along with the
text to which they are pertinent. The documentary matter is enclosed by parentheses, and many readers
will pass over it. it is there, however, for those who wish its assurance of validity, for those who wish to lo-
cate and examine the context of quoted material, and especially for those who wish to use this book as a
springboard for further study.
In assembling and documenting his material, the author followed Shakespearean injunction, nothing ex-
tenuate, nor set down aught in malice. Writing with no goal except to serve his country by telling the
truth, fully substantiated, he has humbly and reverently taken as his motto, or text, a promise of Christ the
Saviour as recorded in the Gospel According to Saint John (VIII, 32):
And Ye Shall Know The Truth And The Truth Shall Make You Free.
Only an informed American people can save America and they can save it only if all those, to whom it is
given to know, will share their knowledge with others.
The Teutonic Knights and Germany
For more than a thousand years a fundamental problem of Europe, the source, seat, and historic guardian
of Western civilization, has been to save itself and its ideals from destruction by some temporary master of
the men and resources of Asia. This statement implies no criticism of the peoples of Asia, for Europe and
America have likewise produced leaders whose armies have invaded other continents.
Since the fall of the Roman Empire of the West in 476 A.D., a principal weakness of Western Europe has
been a continuing lack of unity. Charlemagne (742-814) – who was crowned Emperor of the West in Rome
in 800 – gave the post-Roman European world a generation of unity, and exerted influence even as far as
Jerusalem, where he secured the protection of Christian pilgrims to the shrines associated with the birth,
the ministry, and the crucifixion of Christ. Unfortunately, Charlemagne‘s empire was deveded shortly after
his death into three parts (Treaty of Verdun, 843). From two of these France and Germany derived historic
boundaries – and a millennium of wars fought largely to change them!
After Charlemagne‘s time, the first significant power efforts with a continent-wide common purpose were
the Crusades (1096-1291). In medieval Europe the Church of Rome, the only existing international organi-
zation, had some of the characteristics of a league of nations, and it sponsored these mass movements of
Western Europeans toward the East. In fact, it was Pope Urban II, whose great speech at Clermont,
France, on November 26, 1095, initiated the surge of feeling which inspired the people of France, and of
Europe in general, for the amazing adventure. The late medieval setting of the epochal speech is re-created
with brilliant detail by Harold Lamb in his book, The Crusades: Iron Men and Saints (Doubleday, Doran &
Co., inc., Garden City, New York, 1930, Chapters VI and VII ).
The Pope crossed the Alps from schism-torn Italy and, Frenchman himself, stirred the people of France as
he rode among them. In the chapel at Clermont, he first swayed the men of the church who had answered
his summons to the meeting; then, surrounded by cardinals and mail-clad knights on a golden-canopied
platform in a field by the church, he addressed the multitude:
You are girded knights, but you are arrogant with pride. You turn upon your brothers with fury, cutting
down one the other. Is this the service of Christ? Come forward to the defense of Christ.
The great Pope gave his eager audience some pertinent and inspiring texts from the recorded words of Jesus Christ:
For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there am I in the midst of them (The Gospel According to Saint Mattew, Chapter XVIII, Verse 20).
And every one that hath forsaken houses, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or
children, or lands, for my name,s sake, shall receive a hundredfold, and shall inherit everlasting
life (Saint Matthew, Chapter XIX, Verse 29).
To the words of the Saviour, the Pope added his own specific promise:
Set forth then upon the way to the Holy Sepulcher. . . and fear not. Your possessions here will be
safeguarded, and you will despoil the enemy of greater treasures. Do not fear death, where Chr-
ist laid down His life for you. If any should lose their lives, even on the way thither, by sea or
land, or in where Christ laid down His life for you. If any should lose their lives, even on the way
thither, by sea or land ,or in strife with the pagans, their sins will be requited them. I grant this
to all who go, by the power vested in me by God (Harold Lamb, op.cit., P.42).
Through the long winter, men scanned their supplies, hammered out weapons and armor, and
dreamed dreams of their holy mission. In the summer that followed, they “started out on what
they called the voyage of God” ( Harold Lamb, op. cit., p. VII)
As they faced East they shouted on plains and in mountain valleys, God wills it.Back of the Crusades there was a
mixture of motives (Encyclopedia Britannica, Fourteenth Edition, Vol. VI, p. 722). The immediate goal of those who made the journey was the rescue of the tomb of Christ from the non-Christian power which then dominated Palestine. Each knight wore a cross on his outer garment and they called themselves by a Latin name Cruciati (from crux, cross), or soldiers of the cross, which is translated into English as Crusaders. A probable ecclesiastical objectives were the containment of Mohammedan power and the protection of pilgrims to the Holy Land (encyc. Brit., Vol. VI, p.722)
Inspired by the promise of an eternal home in heaven, alike for those who might perish on the way and
those who might reach the Holy Sepulcher, the Crusaders could not fail. Some of them survived the mul-
tiple perils of the journey and reached Palestine, where they captured the Holy City and founded the Latin
Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099). In this land, which they popularly called Outremer or Beyond The Sea, they
established the means of livelihood, built churches, and saw children and grandchildren born. The Latin
Kingdom‘s weaknesses, vicissitudes, and final destruction by the warriors of Islam, who had been driven
back but not destroyed, constitute a vivid chapter of history – alien, however, to the subject matter of The
Iron Curtain Over America.
Many of the Crusaders became members of three military religious orders. Unlike the Latin Kingdom,
these orders have survived, in one form or another, the epoch of the great adventure, and are of significant
interest in the middle of the twentieth century. The Knights Hospitalers – or by their longer title, the
Knights of the Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem were ―instituted‖ upon an older charitable
foundation by Pope Paschal II in 1113 (Encyc. Brit. Vol. XIX, pp. 836-838). The fraternity of the Knights
Templars (Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon) was founded not as a Hospital but direct-
ly as a military order about 1119, and was installed by Baldwin I, King of Jerusalem, in a building known as
the ―Temple of Solomon‖ – hence the name Templars (Encyc. Brit., Vol.XXI, pp. 920-924). Both Hospita-
lers and Templars are fairly well known to those who have read such historical novels as The Talisman by
Sir Walter Scott.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem maintained its rule for nearly a hundred years, 1099-1187 (see Lamb, op.
cit., and The Crusade: The World‘s Debate, by Hilaire Belloc, Cassell and Company, Ltd., London, 1937).
Still longer the Crusaders held Acre on the coast of Palestine. When their position on the time of its disso-
lution (1306-1312) as an international military brotherhood. The Hospitalers move to the island of
Rhodes, where their headquarters buildings – visited and studied by the author still stand in superb pre-
servation facing the waters of the Inland Sea. From Rhodes, the Knights of the Hospital moved to Malta
hence their later name, Knights of Malta – and held sovereignty on that famous island until 1798.
The two principal Mediterranean orders and their history, including the assumption of some of their de-
fense functions by Venice and then by Britain, do not further concern us. It is interesting to note, however,
as we take leave of the Templars and the Hospitalers, that the three Chivalric Orders of Crusaders are in
some cases the direct ancestors and in other cases have afforded the inspiration, including the terminology
of knighthood, for many of the important present-day social, fraternal, and philanthropic orders of Europe
and America. Among these are the Knights Templar, which is claimed to be a lineal descendant of the
Crusade order of similar name; the Knights of Pythias, founded in 1864; and the Knights of Columbus,
founded in 1882 (quotation and dates from Webster‘s New International Dictionary, Second Edition,
1934, p. 1370).
The third body of medieval military-religious Crusaders was the Knighthood of the Teutonic Order. This
organization was founded as a hospital in the winter of 1190-91 – according to tradition, on a small ship
which had been pulled ashore near Acre. Its services came to be so highly regarded that in March, 1198,
the great men of the army and the [Latin] Kingdom raised the brethren of the German Hospital of St. Mary to
the rank of an Order of Knights (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XXI, pp. 983-984).
Soon, however, the Order found that its true work lay on the Eastern frontiers of Germany (Encyc. Brit., Vol. XXI, p. 894).
Invited by a Christian Polish Prince (1226) to help against the still unconverted Prussians, a body of knights sailed
down the Vistula establishing blockhouses and pushed eastward to found Koenigsburg in 1255. In 1274, a
castle was established at Marienburg and in 1309 the headquarters of the Grand Master was transferred
(Encyc. Brit., Vol. XIV, p. 886) from Venice to this remote border city on the Nojat River, an eastern outlet
of the Vistula (The Rise of Brandenburg-Prussia to 1786, by Sidney Bradshaw Fay, Henry Holt and Com-
pany, New York, 1937).
It was to the Teutonic Order that the Knight of Chaucer, edited by Clarence Griffin Child, D. C. Heath &
Co., Boston, 1912, p. 150). Chaucer‘s lines (prologue to the Canterbury Tales, II., 52-53): Ful ofte tyme he
hadde the bord bigonne Aboven alle naciouns in Pruce tell us that this Knight occupied the seat of Grand
Master, presumably at the capital, Marienburg, and presided over Knights from the various nations as-
sembled in Puce (Prussia) to hold the pagan East at bay.
In his military-religious capacity Chaucer‘s Knight fought for our faith in fifteen battles, including those
in Lithuania and in Russia (Prologue, II., 54-63).
The Teutonic Knights soon drove eastward, or converted to Christianity, the sparsely settled native Prus-
sian people, and assumed sovereignty over East Purssia. They encouraged the immigration of German
families of farmers and artisans, and their domain on the south shore of the Baltic became a self-contained
German state, outside the Holy Roman Empire. The boundaries varied, at one time reaching the Gulf of
Finland ( see Historical Atlas, by William R. Shepherd, Henry Holt and Company, New York, 1911, maps
77, 79, 87, 99, 119). The hundred years from 1309 to 1409 were the Golden Age of the Teutonic Knights,
Young nobles from all over Europe found no greater honor than to come out and fight under their banner
and be Knighted by their Grand Master (Fay, op. cit., pp. 32-33).
As the years passed, the function of the Teutonic Knights as defenders, or potential defenders,
of the Christian West remained unchanged.
Those who founded the Teutonic Order on the hospital ship in Palestine spoke German and from the be-
ginning most of the members were from the various small states into which in medieval times the German
people were divided. As the Crusading spirit waned in Europe, fewer Knights were drawn from far-off
lands and a correspondingly larger number were recruited from nearby German kingdoms, duchies, and
Meanwile, to Brandenburg, a neighbor state to the west of the Teutonic Order domain, the Emperor Si-
gismund sent as ruler Prederick of Hohenzollern and five years later made him hereditary elector. ―A new
era of prosperity, good government, and princely power began with the arrival of the Hohenzollerns in
Brandenburg in the summer of 1412 (Fay, op. cit., pp. 7-9).
After its Golden Age, the Teutonic Order suffered from a lack of religious motivation, since all nearby
peoples including the Lithuanians had been converted. It suffered, too, from poor administration and
from military reverses. To strengthen their position, especially against Poland, the Knights elected Albert
of Hohenzollern, a cousin of the contemporary elector Joachim I (rule, 1499-1535), as Grand Master in
1511. Unlike Chaucer‘s Knight, a lay member who was the father of a promising son, Albert was a clerical
member of the Teutonic Order. He and his elector cousin were both great grandsons of Frederick. the first
Hohenzollern elector (Fay, op. cit., Passim).
In most German states in the first quarter of the sixteenth century, things were not right, there was dis-
content deep in men‘s hearts, and existing powers, ecclesiastical as well as lay, ―Abused their trust. The
quoted phrases are from an essay, Luther and the Modern Mind (The Catholic World, October 1946) by
Dr. Thomas P. Neill, who continues:
This was the stage on which Luther appeared when he nailed his ninety-five theses to the church door at
Wittenberg on Hallowe‘en of 1517. The Catholic Church had come on sorry days, and had there been no
Luther there would likely have been a successful revolt anyway. But there was a Luther.
The posting of the famous ―ninety-five theses by Martin Luther foreshadowed his break, complete and fi-
nal by the spring of 1522, with the Church of Rome. Since the church in Germany was temporarily at a low
ebb, as shown by Dr. Neill, Luther‘s controversy with its authorities won him ―the sympathy and support
of a large proportion of his countrymen‖ (Encyc. Brit., Vol.XIV, p. 944).
The outcome was a new form of Christianity, known later as Protestantism, which made quick headway
among North Germans and East Germans. Its adherents included many Teutonic Knights, and their Ger-
man chief was interested. Still nominally a follower of the Church of Rome, Albert visited Luther at Wit-
tenberg in 1523. ―Luther advised: Give up your vow as a monk; take a wife; abolish the order; and make
yourself hereditary Duke of Prussia. (Fay, op. cit., p. 38). The advice was taken.
Thus since a large proportion of its members and its chief had embraced Protestantism, the Knighthood
severed its slender tie with the Church of Rome. In the words of the Encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. I, p.
522), ―Albert of Hohenzollern, last Grand Master of the Teutonic Order became ―first Duke of Prussia.
In this manner the honorable and historic heritage of extending Christianity in the lands south of the Bal-
tic passed from a military-religious order to a Germany duchy. Prussia and not the Teutonic Order now
governed the strategically vital shore land of the southeast Baltic, between the Niemen and Vital shore
land of the southeast Baltic, between the Niemen and Vistula rivers.
Proud of their origin as a charitable organization and proud of being a bulwark of Christianity, first Catho-
lic and then Protestant, the people of Prussia, many of them descended from the lay knights, developed a
strong sense of duty and loyalty. From them came also many of the generals and statesmen who helped
to make Prussia great. . . (Fay, op.cit., p. 2)
This duchy of Prussia was united with Brandenburg in 1618 by the marriage of Anna, daughter and heiress
of the second Duke of Prussia, to the elector, John Sigismund (Hohenzollern). Under the latter‘s grand-
son, Frederickk William, the Great Elector (reign, 1640-1688), Brandenburg-Prussia became second on-
ly to Austria among the member states of the Holy Roman Empire some of its territory, acquired from the
Teutonic Order, extending even beyond the loose confederation and it was regarded as the head of Ger-
man protestantism (Encyc. Brit., Vol. IV, p. 33 and passim).
By an edict of the Holy Roman Emperor, the state of Brandenburg-Prussia became the kingdom of Prussia
in 1701; the royal capital was Berlin, which was in the heart of the old province of Brandenburg. Under
Fredirick the Great (reign, 1740-1768), Prussia became one of the most highly developed nations of Eu-
rope. A century later, it was the principal component of the German Empire which the Minister-President
of prussia, Otto von Bismarck, caused to be proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles (January 18,
Prussia‘s historic function, inherited from the Teutonic Order of standing as a bastion on the Baltic ap-
proach to Europe, was never fully forgotten by the west. The Hohenzollern monarchy was the strongest
Protestant power on the continent and its relations with the governments of both England and America
were intimate and friendly. The royal family of England several times married into the Prussian dynasty.
Frederick William II of Brandenburg-Prussia, later to be Frederick, first king of Prussia (see preceding pa-
ragraph) helped William of England of Orange, the archenemy of Louis XIV of France, to land in England,
where he became (1688) co-soverign with his wife, Mary Stuart, and a friend and helper of the American
colonies. It was a prussian Baron, Frederick William von Steuben, whom General George Washington
made Inspector General (May, 1778), responsible 1815 Prussian troops under Field Marshal von Bluecher
helped save Wellington‘s England from Napoleon. In 1902 Pruce Henry of Prussia, brother of the German
Emperor, paid a state visit to the United States and received at West Point, Annapolis, Washington, and
elsewhere, as royal a welcome as was ever accorded to a foreign visitor by the government of the United
States. The statue of Frederick the Great, presented in appreciation, stood in front of the main building of
the Army War College in Washington during two wars between the countrymen of Frederick of Hohenzol-
len and the countrymen George Washington, an evidence in bronze of the old Western view that funda-
mental relationships between peoples should survive the temporary disturbances occasioned by wars.
The friendly relationships between the United States and Germany existed not only on the governmental
level but were cemented by close racial kinship. Not only is the basic blood stream of persons of English
descent very nearly identical with that of Germans; in addition, nearly a fourth of the Americans of the
early twentieth century were actually of German descent (Chapter IV, below).
Thus, in the early years of the twentieth century the American people admired Germany/ It was a strong
nation, closely akin; and it was a Christian land, part Protestant and part Catholic, as America had been
part Catholic since the Cavaliers leave to Virginia and the Puritans to New England. Moreover, the old
land of the Teutonic Knights led the world in music, in medicine, and in scholarship. The terms Prussia
and Prussian, Germany and German had a most favorable connotation.
Then came World War I (1914), in which Britain and France and their allies were opposed to Germany and
her allies. Since the citizens of the United States admired all three nations they were stunned at the calam-
ity of such a conflict and were slow in taking sides. Finally (1917), and to some extent because of the
pressure of American zionists (Chapter III, below), we joined the Entente group. which included Britain
and France. The burden of a great war was accepted by the people, even with some enthusiasm on the At-
lantic seaboard, for according to our propagandists it was a war to end all wars. It was pointed out, too,
that Britain among the world‘s great nations was closest to us in language and culture, and that France had been traditionally a friend since the Marquis of Lafayette and the Count of Rochambeau aided General Washington.
With a courage fanned by the newly perfected science of propaganda, the American people threw them-
selves heart and soul into defeating Germany in the great ―war to end all wars.‖ The blood-spilling the
greatest in all history and between men of kindred race was ended by an armistice on November 11, 1918,
and the American people entertained high hopes for lasting peace. Their hopes, however, were soon to
fade away. With differing viewpoints, national and personal, and with the shackles of suddenly revealed
secret agreement between co-belligerents. President Woodrow Wilson, Prime Minister David Lloyd
George, Premier Georges Clemenceau of France, and Prime Minister Vittorio Orlando of Italy had much
difficulty in agreeing on the terms of peace treaties (1919), The merits or shortcomings of which cannot in
consequence be fully chalked up to any one of them.