Explore These World War I Trenches and Tunnels in France and Belgium
by Jennifer Nalewicki Smithsonian.com
For troops serving on the front lines during World War I, trench warfare was common practice. The use of machine guns and rapid-fire field artillery pieces forced soldiers on both sides, the Allies and the Central Powers, to bore intricate trench systems into the ground. These trenches served as protection against enemy fire and allowed soldiers to fire back without being fully exposed. Tunnels, on the other hand, were used to surreptitiously place explosives beneath unsuspecting enemy soldiers and move supplies between different parts of a battleground. In one known instance, a tunnel was used as an underground hospital.
While overgrowth and erosion have largely overtaken many battlegrounds in the 100 years since the Treaty of Versailles was signed, officially ending the war between Germany and the Allies, archaeologists, historians and even civilians have uncovered the remnants of these protective hideaways throughout Europe. These sites are important glimpses, even today, into battles that took place during the Great War.
Carol graduated from Riverside White Cross School of Nursing in Columbus, Ohio and received her diploma as a registered nurse. She attended Bowling Green State University where she received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in History and Literature. She attended the University of Toledo, College of Nursing, and received a Master’s of Nursing Science Degree as an Educator.
She has traveled extensively, is a photographer, and writes on medical issues. Carol has three children RJ, Katherine, and Stephen – one daughter-in-law; Katie – two granddaughters; Isabella Marianna and Zoe Olivia – and one grandson, Alexander Paul. She also shares her life with her husband Gordon Duff, many cats, and two rescues.