Turkey: The Origin of the Daesh (ISIS) Terrorist Organization


By Dr. Abdullah Manaz for VT Istanbul


As it is known, the US occupied Iraq in 2003. 4500 American soldiers and more than 100 thousand Iraqis were killed in this war. During this occupation, the former soldiers of Saddam and Baath in Central Iraq and Islamist groups linked with the Al-Qaeda, had shown a great resistance against the United States with the support of with the support of the Russian Secret Service (SVR).

The Al-Qaeda militants captured by the US Army, were gathered in the Abu Ghraib and Bukka prisons. Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, whose real name is Ibrahim Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarrai, appeared in this period. in February 2004, Baghdadi was thrown in Abu Ghraib prison, where the Al-Qaeda militants were captured in Fallujah. Baghdadi, who spent about 8 months here, was taken to Bucca camp in October 2004.

Baghdadi, who had a doctorate from the Islamic University of Baghdad in 1996 and was alleged to have worked with Secret Service (Muhabarat) in the period of Saddam, was an important person in this camp where there were 24.000 people in 24 different sections. The Pentagon gave Baghdadi a special opportunity. Prisoners could not move from one section to another, but Baghdadi could go to any department. He performed Friday prayers and made religious speeches. Most of the militants in these camps were Al-Qaeda militants who had pledged Zarkavi. (Parks, 2015)

Baghdadi, who agreed with the Pentagon, was unconditionally released from the Bucca camp in December 2004. There was always contradictory information about that Abu Bakr al Baghdadi went to where and did what from this date until 2009.

The Establishment of Daesh Terrorist Organization

The most important claim regarding the establishment of the organization was published on July 16, 2014 in the Bahrain-based Gulf Daily News. According to this news; US National Security Agency Agent Edward Snowden said that Daesh was founded by the Israel, UK, the US Secret Services and trained by them. According to Snowden, this secret operation which called “The Hornet’s Nest” planned for gathering and liquidating that all Islamist radicals in the world in a location. Abu Bakr al Baghdadi was trained by Mossad in military, theological and speaking, (Tsang, 2014)

Iraq’s Al-Qaeda’s Jordanian leader Zarkavi was assassinated in the Bakuba region of Diyala on Wednesday, June 7, 2006 as a result of the US airstrike with intelligence support of the Iraqi Maliki government. Zalmay Halilzad, the chief consultant of the US in Afghanistan and the Middle East, was one of the important figures of the operation, and also Zarkavi had fought against the Russians in Afghanistan for some time.  (The New York Times, 2006, June 8)

Following the death of Zarqawi (at the age of 55), the leadership path of Baghdadi was opened. In October 2006, Baghdadi was appointed as the General Command by 11 members of the Iraqi Al-Qaeda ruled by Hamid al-Zavi. The new formation declared that the Khalilah State has been establishment under the name of “Dawla Al Islamiyya fil Iraq”. In 2010, Hamid al-Zavi was killed and Ibrahim Ali al-Badri, ho using the nickname “Abu Bakr Al Baghdadi”, has full authority over the Organization.

Maliki, who served as PM between 2006 and 2014, told a local TV station on Sunday that the administration of former US President Barack Obama had played a key role in the creation of Daesh by allowing the terrorist group to overrun Iraqi territories. According to the former premier, in 2013, the US provided Iraq with intelligence and aerial imagery pinpointing Daesh militants who had lined up behind Iraqi borders in Syria in large groups, waiting to cross into Iraq after what they thought was going to be the imminent fall of Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. Maliki said back then Baghdad had no fighter jets capable of bombing the terrorist positions and the Iraqi combat helicopters did not have the range to orchestrate an attack. So naturally, Baghdad turned to Washington for help and asked the Obama administration to provide the Iraqi air force with “one or two” fighter jets under the 2008 security agreement between the two sides. Washington, however, turned down the requests and advised the Iraqi government to ask Jordan for help but that was a no-go as there was no military cooperation agreement between Baghdad and Amman at the time. The former Iraqi PM said “America’s support for Daesh did not end there as Washington proceeded to stop all supplies of helicopter parts and other military equipment to Iraq and halted a contract to sell Iraq F-16 attack aircraft even though Baghdad had paid for them in advance.” Maliki said he couldn’t still fathom why the Obama administration made those decisions, letting the terrorists get away by refusing to attack their positions. The former prime minister addressed the ongoing debate in Iraq over the legality of America’s military presence in the country, saying that Washington never asked for permission to return to Iraq after its full troop withdrawal in 2011. (Press TV, 2019, February 25)

The Changing in US Middle East Policy

In 2009, a significant change was observed in the United States’ Great Middle East policy. In this Period, Turkiye’s Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan began to openly oppose the Middle East plans of the United States and had become a charismatic leader among Sunni Muslims in the region. At the Davos summit in 2009, Tayyip Erdogan saying “One Minute” rebuked Şimon Peres and ropes broke between Erdogan and Obama’s administration. A major hidden war launched between the US and Turkiye. The US, on the one hand mobilized to clean anti-American officers in the Turkish Army with its Fifth Column organization Feto sect and even to kill Erdogan, on the other hand it decided to cooperate with the government of Assad in Syria.

The Pentagon had established close relations with the Syrian Military Intelligence within the framework of the Daesh Project, which was accelerated since 2009. The US, Britain and Israel had begun to worry about the strengthening of the Sunni Islamist Opposition in Syria and changed their strategy in the direction of the continuation the Assad Administration. Therefore, as from 2009, within Russia’s knowledge, Pentagon and the Syrian Military Intelligence have made significant contributions to Daesh Project. General Hussein Ali Kemal, the Syrian Intelligence Officer, personally managed all kinds of organizations to strengthen the Daesh in his headquarters in Zabadani. (It was announced that the general died of cancer in 2012. The killing of the commanders like Gazi Kenan who run the major operations when his work is over, was the tradition of Muhabarat). According to sources, between 2009 and 2012, a very important part of the foreign radical Islamists who joined Daesh (Daesh) used the Damascus Airport and the Lebanon Damascus highway. During this period, participants to organization via Turkiye and Iraq were quite a few. Baghdadi has had a special affinity for the Iraqi Baathists and therefore received significant support from the Syrian Ba’athists. During this period, some Al-Qaeda militants in Syrian prisons were released by the regime to join Daesh (Daesh). (Chulov, 2014)

In this preparation process, Jordan was selected as the Main Headquarters for Daesh Terrorist Organization. King Abdullah II opposed these efforts, but he could not oppose US and British oppression. Prince Hassan Military Air Area near the town of Safawi in ​​the Jordanian province of Zarqa and the Military Intelligence Zone in its vicinity were designated as the Headquarters and Training Camp for Daesh. The top Daesh commanders were taken to King Abdullah II Special Operations Camp in the north of Amman.

Nearly 80% of foreign militants in Daesh were militants coming from the North Caucasus and Middle Volga regions. Alexander Bortnikov, Head of the Russian Federal Security Service, stated that the real target of Daesh trained by the Pentagon in Jordan, was the Central Asian Turkic Republics. (Sputnik, 2015).

It has been the great service of the MI6 and Jordanian Intelligence leaders and experts Caucasus origin in this subject. Many members of the Shuheda Yermuk Group, which is the branch of the Deraa region of Daesh, confessed that their leader Abu Ali al-Beridi received money and logistical support from Jordan through Sheikh Abu Ubeyde al-Kahtani. (YouTube, 2015a).

Let us make it clear here that two important corridors have been used for the radicals that feed Daesh, to reach the region. One of these is Europe – Africa – Jordan Corridor and the other was Asia – Chechnya – Armenia – Iran – Iraq Corridor directed by the special members of the Chechen leader Kadyrov. In this process, the number of organizations participating in the dais militants through Turkiye, is quite limited compared to others. According to the information obtained after the July 15 Coup Attempt; some commanders who is Feto member, in Turkiye, Iraq and Syria borders they formed free crossings for Daesh. However, international media organizations in the US and UK have always brought to the fore the Turkiye corridor rather than the above two important corridors. The main objective of this psychological war launched after 2009 were Turkiye and Recep Tayyip Erdogan.

The Beginning of the Syrian Civil War

In February 2012, the US and Britain closed the Damascus embassies and the Syrian civil war officially began. The Friends of Syria Group was established with the initiative of Turkiye and Syria Opposition recovered. As from 2012, the power of the Iraqi Shia government and Iran in Iraq and the region has increased unpredictably. Iran has started to send military aid and logistic to the Syrian Assad Administration and the Lebanese Hezbollah. In Iraq, the Sunni and Shia tensions escalated. In the Sunni and Shiite cities, ceremonies and religious venues, the bomb vehicles began to explode.

In March 2013, Daesh militants settled fully into the city of Raqqa, Syria’s most strategic location where the largest dam. Here will be the main headquarters of the organization in the future and when the time came, it was the Last Castle which will be abandoned to the US and its Allies.

On July 21, 2013, nearly a thousand Al-Qaeda militants fled freely from the Iraqi prisons. This situation was a sign that the pro-Iranian Iraqi government was involved in Daesh crime. These Al-Qaeda militants obeyed Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, whom they knew from the Bucca camp, and joined Daesh.

On June 7, 2014 (at the very time on the anniversary of Zarqawi’s death) only 1,500 Daesh militants headed by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi entered Mosul. About 50,000 Iraqi soldiers left the most modern US weapons and run from the city. Thus, the Terrorist Organization, which was opened its way, was equipped with technological new weapons.

In February 2015, El-Zamili, President of the Iraqi Parliament’s National Security and Defense Committee, explained that the Iraqi Special Forces have dropped two British aircraft which were carrying weapons to Daesh and they are waiting for an explanation from London. El Zamili. He argued that the coalition planes often left arms, especially to Daesh-dominated areas. (Mamoun, 2015).

Another interesting event was that more than 120 British members of the SAS Special Forces were deciphered in the south of Syria when they were training with Daesh Terrorist’s clothes. When it was discovered that the Coalition planes would opened fire to this group, the UK Government had halted it and had closed the case, arguing that it was an educational activity. (Giannangeli & Taylor, 2015)

Daiş A Studio Project

Daesh Terrorist Organization is a complete laboratory work with its clothes, flag, media services, Guantanamo colored prisoner jerseys, marches, training, actions and strategy. These are not featuring that an Islamist group can draw from its own culture and traditions.

Purpose of Daesh Project

The Obama Administration has developed new strategies to serve US interests while planning to withdraw from the region. The most important of these was the Daesh Terrorist Organization, a joint project of Israel, US, UK, Jordan and Saudi Arabia Intelligence Services.

One of the first aims of the Daesh Project was to prevent that the modern weapons left by the US to the Iraqi Army, fall into the Shia Government hand. While the US was trying to break the Sunni resistance in Iraq, it had to indirectly strengthen the Iraqi Shia government. Of course, the Shiite Iraqi government was also in the sphere of influence of Iran and Russia. Naturally, with the withdrawal of the United States from Iraq, the entire region would be included in the activity area of Iran and Russia.

The most important main objectives of the Daesh Project can be summarized as follows:

  • Elimination of Sunni Opposition: Sunni groups were the only force to stop Iranian Shiite expansionism. However, some of the Sunnis present in the region were the Muslim Brotherhood and another part was in line of the Al-Qaeda. Both were dangerous for Israel‘s security strategies. Therefore, apart from the existing Sunni groups, there was a need a brand-new Radical Islamist organization and threat in accordance with the interests of the United States and its Allies.
  • The justification for military installation and intervention: The US and its Allies only could protect the military presence in the region with the New Threat. In this way, their interventions could gain international legitimacy and control the formation of the borders of the New Middle East.
  • Sunni Shiite Conflict: The sectarian conflict between Muslims would be fueled and the Sunni groups would prevent the regional expansion of pro-Iranian Shiite groups. In this way, it would be replaced American troops with Friendly-Enemy Local Forces.
  • Strengthening the Assad Administration: In order to neutralize the anti-Israeli Sunni opposition, the Assad administration would be made permanent and re-legitimized before the world public.
  • Deactivation of Russian Radicals: The Daesh Project was an opportunity for Russia. With an international Jihad Movement, the radical Islamist groups, especially in the Caucasus, would be taken out of the country and neutralized in the war environment.
  • The Implementation of Kurdistan Plan: Kurdistan project, which will create a wall between Turkiye and the Islamic world in the Middle East and Turkiye was started de facto. The Daesh organization would attacked the Kurds and pro-Western minorities in Iraq and Syria, and then handed over these regions to US and Kurdish sovereignty after a controlled conflict. As a matter of fact, after Daesh emerged in the region, Iraqi Kurds expanded their territory by 50% and the PKK terrorist organization expanded by 800%.
  • Great Israel and Mesopotamia: Major water resources between the Mesopotamian lands and the region’s two major dams between the Euphrates and Tigris, which are of strategic importance for the United States and (Great) Israel (Dream), would be controlled.
  • Mediterranean Energy Corridor: Following the discovery of oil in 1850, one of the most important plans of the West was the transportation of Middle Eastern oil to the Mediterranean. The Daesh project would formed a basis for the formation of the Iraq-Mediterranean Corridor in the middle east that has the most important natural gas and oil production.
  • Global Threat and Strategy: The existence and actions of the Al-Qaeda organization have been an important reason for the US to settle in Asia and the Middle East. Again, the Daesh Terrorist Organization, which was built based on Al-Qaeda, was a justification for US strategic interests. Daesh has emerged not only in Iraq and Syria, but also in many strategic areas such as Afghanistan, Libya, Nigeria, Yemen, Somalia, Sinai, Nigeria, and Caucasus, and has caused the US to intervene in these areas. In order to undermine the world trade of China, which the US saw as the biggest threat, the organization of El Shabab emerged in Somalia. The majority of the vessels that were attacked by the al-Shabab Organization that is following Daesh’s philosophy and line were carrying Chinese goods. Now, the US could settle where Daesh almost went.

Daesh’s Salafist Philosophy and Muslim Enmity

The Daesh Terrorist Organization, which was built based on Islamic culture as an Islamist organization, defined all Muslims as enemies.

According to a study conducted in December 2018, 60% of the actions of Daesh Terrorist Organization in Yemen were against Al-Qaeda and 40% against the Shiite Houthis. Abu Muhammad al-Adnani, who was the spokesman of the organization, had promised that they will continue to fight with them until all the Islamic communities and organizations on the earth have come to an end.  (Asyanın Sesi, 2018, December 3)

According to the organization, all the other Muslims are faithless. This conception of the Daesh Terrorist Organization was very similar to the radical Saudi Salafist belief. Therefore, Saudi Arabia was the country that sent the most militants to the Daesh terrorist organization following Russia. One of the fundamental characteristics of the Salafist belief is that he strongly objects to the Shiite Islamic faith and accuses him with blasphemousness. As a matter of fact, the first enemy of Saudi Arabia in the region is Iranian Shia administration. The Saudis are deeply hostile not only to Iran but to all the Middle East Shiites and it has been taking up arms against them. Also, there have been many articles in Daesh’ media on the Iran hostility of Daesh Terrorist Organization. The most important enemy of the Daesh Terrorist Organization after the Shiites is the Muslim Brotherhood.

The International Supports of Daesh Terrorist Organization

In fact, most of the militants who joined the Daesh Terrorist Organization came from different countries such as Russia, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Tunisia, France and Morocco, although Turkiye had a thousand-kilometer boundary with the region. Here below You can see the results of a study prepared by BBC about the Countries of Foreign Fighters in Daesh. (BBC, 2017)

The Protection of Daesh Terrorist Organization by the US

One of the most important confessions about the role of the US in the development of Daesh Terrorist Organization was made by General Michael Flynn, former Chief of Defense Intelligence of Obama, who spoke to Al Jazeera on August 4, 2015. Flynn said that the United States intentionally and deliberately turned a blind eye to development of Daesh. He was Trump‘s Top Chief of Military and Security Advisor of the US President on January 20th. (Aljazeera, 2015).

In the same way, former NATO commander General Wesley Clark told CNN that “the Islamic State (Daesh) was created by our friends and allies to destroy Hezbollah.” He had pointed out in a very clear way Israel. (YouTube, 2015b)

Clark and a group of Senate members strongly opposed aggressive foreign policy launched by the US after 2001, reshaping the Great Middle East, the Libyan and Syrian wars, and the conduct of US foreign policy through Radical Islamic ideology. (YouTube, 2015c)

In various periods, the United States protected the Daesh Terrorist Organization from attacks and kidnapped the terrorist organization militants from the cities under siege.

May 2016: The first incident on the transfer of the United States Terrorist Organization took place in Manbij, North Syria. The US slid 2,000 Daesh militants from the region to Cerablus. In June 2016, the US and the PKK Terrorist Organization launched an operation to Manbij and easily conquered the city. For a long time that the spokesman of the pro-US groups in the region and sought refuge in Turkiye in November 2017 Talal Silo these transfers in his confession told in a detailed manner. (Daily Sabah (2017, November 15).

September 2016: The Free Syrian Army, which was supported by the Turkish Armed Forces, launched an Operation called the Euphrates Shield on September 3, 2016. The aim of the operation was to clean up the terrorist organization from the Turkiye’s border between Azez and Jarabulus. However, in the successful march operation, when the most important city in the region, Al Bab was besieged, the Pentagon postponed the operation of Raqqa and directed the Daesh groups in Raqqa to Al Bab. Although it took some time, on 23 February 2017, El Bab, the third important city of the organization, was completely cleared from Daesh militants by the Turkish Armed Forces-backed Opponents and Turkmens.

June 2017: The Assad Army, backed by Russia, faced US military intervention when it turned to Raqqa after Aleppo. The United States inflicted heavy losses the Assad Army with its heavy air attacks.   (The Guardian, 2017). Russia, in turn, made an intense and strategic airstrike on Raqqa on 10 June 2017. It was said that in these attacks against Daesh, Baghdadi was killed. (McKernan, 2017).

August 2017: Let us not forget that the Daesh Terrorist Organization is a project established for the USA’s permanence in the region and change of space. As a matter of fact, in August 2017, after the Russian & Syrian forces started operations against Deyrizor, a US Air Force plane were transferred 20 Daesh commanders in Deyrizor to another area. (Sputnik, 2017a)

October 2017:  When Raqqa was reported to be rescued, it was found out that over 4,000 Daesh militants, including women, children and senior commanders of the organization, were taken out of the city with buses under the protection of the US and its Ally PYD & PKK Terrorists. (Sommerville & Dalati, 2017).

November 2017: The militants of Daesh Terrorist Organization were separated from Raqqa with their weapons under US protection. Upon the news of the BBC, the US announced that they were not a party to the agreement between PYD & PKK and Daesh, but that they understood the agreement as a local solution. (TRTWorld, 2017).

In the same month, The Assad Army in Russia’s air support and on the Iraqi side the Iraqi Armed Forces and the Hashd Al-Shabi forces have carried out an intense military operation to clear the Daesh Terrorist Organization in the region. During these operations, the US made many moves to protect the Daesh Terrorist Organization. Russian Defense Ministry Spokesman Konashenkov said about this subject: “An American F-22 fighter jet actively prevented the Russian pair of Su-25 attack aircraft from carrying out a combat mission to destroy the Daesh stronghold in the suburbs of the city of Mayadeen in the airspace over the western bank of the Euphrates River on November 23. The F-22 aircraft fired off heat flares and released brake shields with permanent maneuvering, imitating an air battle.” (Sputnik, 2017b)

December 2017: The Russian Ministry of Defense noted that Daesh militants had leaved Abu Kamal city in the same way under the US protection. (Muraselon, 2017).

The most striking explanation for the relationship between the United States and the Daesh Terrorist Organization was made by Russia’s Leader Putin. Putin said in his traditional speech at the end of the year: “We tell our American partners the knowledge of militants crossing points from Iraq. But there is no reaction. The reason is that they think that they can use them to fight against Assad. This is perhaps the simplest of the roads, but also the most dangerous.” (Sputnik 2017c)

Where are Daesh Militants now

At the last, almost all of the terrorists who turned the Baghos farms in south-eastern Syria into the Headquarters, moved by the US to the north-east of Syria and to the Iraqi borders without being killed .

When Trump announced his decision to withdraw from Syria, According to Syrian Human Rights Watch; From December 2018,  5392 Daesh militants and 52680 militant families moved from the region. Most of them are Iraqi citizens and the rest are Western countries, Russia, Somalia and Philippine nationals. (The Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, 2019, March 1)

What has happened to the militants of Daesh Terrorist Organization moved from Baghoz by the US & PKK Alliance is still unknown. Although Trump wanted these militants to be taken back by the countries of which they were citizens, there was no significant country demand. After a while, this issue became completely forgetten. After this period of silence, it is understood that since April 2019, Daish Terror Organization has established a new activity area in Palmira Desert Region and around Tanif Base of the US. From this month on, Daesh began actions against Syrian Assad forces. Also it carried out some attacks in Iraqi towns. Baghdadi, The leader of the organization, tried to cross the Iraqi side, but failed to do so due to strict security measures and returned to the Palmira desert was recorded.


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Chulov, Martin (2014, December 11). Daesh: the inside story, The Guardian. Retrieved from: https://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/dec/11/-sp-Daesh-the-inside-story

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Giannangeli, Marco and Taylor, Josh (2015, 1 Ağustos). SAS dress as Daesh fighters in undercover war on jihadis. Retrieved from: https://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/595439/SAS-Daesh-fighter-Jihadis

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Mamoun, Abdelhak (2015, 10 Şubat). Parliamentary Commission on Security and Defense reveals documents on coalition aircrafts aiding Daesh. Iraqi News. Retrieved from: https://www.iraqinews.com/iraq-war/parliamentary-commission-security-defense-reveals-documents-coalition-aircrafts-aiding-Daesh/

Muraselon (2017, 14 Aralık). (New photos) | US forces refused to carry out airstrikes against Daesh near al-Bukamal -MOD. Erişim adresi: https://muraselon.com/en/2017/11/new-photos-us-forces-refused-carry-airstrikes-Daesh-near-al-bukamal-mod/

Parks, Brad (2015, 30 Mayıs). How a US prison camp helped create Daesh? New York Post, Retrieved from: https://nypost.com/2015/05/30/how-the-us-created-the-camp-where-Daesh-was-born/

Press TV (2019, February 25). Maliki reveals how Obama knowingly helped Daesh so US forces could return to Iraq. Retrieved from: https://www.presstv.com/Detail/2019/02/25/589476/Iraq-US-maliki-Daesh-secrets-Obama-Trump

Sputnik, (2015, 28 Ekim). ISIL Rose as Puppet ‘Terrorist Battering Ram’ of World Powers – FSB. Retrieved fromi: https://sputniknews.com/middleeast/201510281029212264-isil-world-powers-arab-spring/

Sputnik (2017a, 7 Eylül). ‘ABD, 20’den fazla IŞİD komutanını Deyr ez Zor’dan tahliye etti’ Erişim adresi: https://tr.sputniknews.com/ortadogu/201709071030042620-abd-deyr-ez-zor-tahliye-isid-komutani/

Sputnik (2017b, 9 Aralık). ‘ABD’nin havadaki kışkırtmaları, IŞİD’in yok edilmesini engellemek için’. Erişim adresi: https://tr.sputniknews.com/rusya/201712091031334503-rus-ve-amerikan-ucaklarinin-yakinlasmalari-abdnin-isidin-yok-edilmesini-engelleme-cabalarindan-kaynaklaniyor/

Sputnik (2017c, 14 Aralık). ‘Putin, açıkça ABD-IŞİD işbirliğine işaret etti’. Erişim adresi: https://tr.sputniknews.com/columnists/201712141031408266-vladimir-putin-abd-isid-daes-teror-isbirligi-suriye-ortadogu-astana-soci-recep-tayyip-erdogan-sam-anakara-iran-temas-gorus-analiz/

Sommerville, Quentin and Dalati, Riam (2017, 13 Kasım). Raqqa’s dirty secret. BBC. Erişim adresi: https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/resources/idt-sh/raqqas_dirty_secret

The Guardian (2017, 18 Haziran). US plane shoots down Syrian aircraft that attacked US-backed fighters. Erişim adresi: https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jun/18/us-plane-shoots-down-syrian-aircraft

The New York Times (June 8, 2006), U.S. Strike Hits Insurgent at Safehouse. Retrieved from: https://www.nytimes.com/2006/06/08/world/middleeast/08cnd-iraq.html

Tsang, Derek (2014, 19 Ağustos). Bloggers: Edward Snowden leaked NSA documents show U.S., Israel created Islamic State. Retrieved from: http://www.politifact.com/punditfact/statements/2014/aug/19/blog-posting/edward-snowden-leaked-nsa-documents-show-us-israel/

TRTWorld (2017, 14 Kasım). Why did the YPG let Daesh militants leave Raqqa with their weapons? Erişim adresi: https://www.trtworld.com/americas/why-did-the-ypg-let-Daesh-militants-leave-raqqa-with-their-weapons–12276

YouTube, (2015a, 4 Temmuz). منشادة أسرى لواء شهداء اليرموك لأهاليهم وعناصر اللواء /  Şuheda Yarmuk Tugayı Mahkumu. Erişim adresi: https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=1&v=J_Ft3L0oH5I

YouTube, (2015b, 22 Şubat). General Wesley Clark explains Daesh was created by U.S. Allies to destroy Hezbollah. Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFwGvk3k6WM

YouTube, (2015c, 24 Aralık). Wesley Clark tells Fox News: “We use radical islamists for foreign policy objectives.” Retrieved from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WWBAY-ApG7M

You can read also more information and photos about this issue at this book: https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Dr_Abdullah_Manaz_Daish_Daesh_Deash_ISIS_ISIL_Proj?id=5TCIDwAAQBAJ



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