Orangutans Are the Only Non-Human Primates Capable of ‘Talking’ About the Past
by Meilan Solly Smithsonian.com
One of the most distinguishing features of human speech is displaced reference, or the ability to discuss objects and events not physically present at a given time. Although we tend to take this phenomenon for granted, it’s actually quite an impressive feat—for perspective, imagine your pet dog regaling a neighborhood pal with tales of a recent trip to the park by drawing on memories of long-gone ball throws and belly rubs.
Researchers have long believed displaced reference is unique to humans, but as Virginia Morell reports for Science magazine, a new study led by researchers from Scotland’s University of St. Andrews suggests orangutans can “talk” about the past, too.
The team’s findings, published in the journal Science Advances, revolve around seven orangutan mothers tricked into thinking they’d spotted potential predators, which were actually the two scientists, Adriano Reis e Lameira and Josep Call, draped in sheets featuring tiger stripes, spotted patterns and various colors. Over the course of 24 simulated exposures, Lameira and Call recorded 12 instances of mothers shouting warnings to their babies and 12 instances of no shouting at all.
Carol graduated from Riverside White Cross School of Nursing in Columbus, Ohio and received her diploma as a registered nurse. She attended Bowling Green State University where she received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in History and Literature. She attended the University of Toledo, College of Nursing, and received a Master’s of Nursing Science Degree as an Educator.
She has traveled extensively, is a photographer, and writes on medical issues. Carol has three children RJ, Katherine, and Stephen – one daughter-in-law; Katie – two granddaughters; Isabella Marianna and Zoe Olivia – and one grandson, Alexander Paul. She also shares her life with her husband Gordon Duff, many cats, and two rescues.