Treehoppers Use Morphospace to Co-opt Awesome Body Parts

Bocydium globulare, a treehopper with an unusual, helicopter-like helmet. (Andreas Kay via Flickr under CC BY-NC-SA 2.0)

Health Editor’s Note: The treehopper, a type of cicada relative, is totally awesome in how it can use genes meant for another body part to form decorative appendages, possibly used for mimicry. This …..Carol  

Treehoppers’ Bizarre, Wondrous Helmets Use Wing Genes to Grow

By Katherine J. Wu/

As their name suggests, treehoppers are capable of some amazing acrobatics. But these cicada relatives are even more intriguing to scientists for the stupendous structures that sprout from their backs. These outgrowths, called helmets, are present on all 3,300 species of treehopper, varying dramatically in appearance. Likely for the sake of avoiding predation, the helmets can take the form of thorns, leaves, feces or even other bugs, like ants or wasps.

Evolutionary biologists have long puzzled over these helmets, which resemble nothing else in nature, and how they became so diverse. In 2011, a team of researchers led by Benjamin Prud’homme proposed a theory that suggested the wonky structures were actually highly modified sets of wings.

If true, the claim would have profound evolutionary implications. It would mean treehoppers had grown a third set of wings on the thorax, or the middle section of the body—likely making them the first insects to do so in about 250 million years.

Prud’homme and his team’s research sent ripples through a small but avid community of entomologists, some of whom began to push back. Dissentersincluding Hokkaido University’s Kazunori Yoshizawa, insisted that the helmet wasn’t a set of wings, but rather an elaborate pronotum—……

Read more:

Carol graduated from Riverside White Cross School of Nursing in Columbus, Ohio and received her diploma as a registered nurse. She attended Bowling Green State University where she received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in History and Literature. She attended the University of Toledo, College of Nursing, and received a Master’s of Nursing Science Degree as an Educator.

She has traveled extensively, is a photographer, and writes on medical issues. Carol has three children RJ, Katherine, and Stephen – one daughter-in-law; Katie – two granddaughters; Isabella Marianna and Zoe Olivia – and one grandson, Alexander Paul. She also shares her life with husband Gordon Duff, many cats, and two rescue pups.

Carol’s Archives 2009-2013
Due to the nature of independent content, VT cannot guarantee content validity.
We ask you to Read Our Content Policy so a clear comprehension of VT's independent non-censored media is understood and given its proper place in the world of news, opinion and media.

All content is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of VT, other authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VT.

About VT - Read Full Policy Notice - Comment Policy


  1. Interesting that one of the nodules appears to resemble a stinger, although it doesn’t look as if it can be deployed without the treehopper rolling the entire body. From a structural standpoint, the helmet also looks like it could perform the role of a counterbalance?

    • I’ve changed my mind: it’s a phased array radar, and the stinger-appearing appendage is the directional pointer.

Comments are closed.