Understanding Passive-Aggressive Personality Disorder
by Alane Kim/ThoughtCo
The term “passive-aggressive” is used to describe behavior that expresses defiance or hostility indirectly, rather than openly. These behaviors can include deliberately “forgetting” or procrastinating, complaining about a lack of appreciation, and a sullen demeanor.
- The term “passive-aggressive” refers to behavior that expresses defiance or hostility indirectly, rather than openly.
- The term “passive-aggressive” was first officially documented in a 1945 U.S. War Department bulletin.
- Passive-aggressive personality disorder is no longer classified as a diagnosable disorder, but is still considered relevant in the field of psychology.
Origins and History
The first official documentation of passive-aggressive personality disorder was in a technical bulletin issued in 1945 by the U.S. War Department. In the bulletin, Colonel William Menninger described soldiers who refused to comply with orders. Instead of outwardly expressing their defiance, however, the soldiers behaved in a passively aggressive manner. For instance, according to the bulletin, they would pout, procrastinate, or otherwise behave stubbornly or inefficiently.
Carol graduated from Riverside White Cross School of Nursing in Columbus, Ohio and received her diploma as a registered nurse. She attended Bowling Green State University where she received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in History and Literature. She attended the University of Toledo, College of Nursing, and received a Master’s of Nursing Science Degree as an Educator.
She has traveled extensively, is a photographer, and writes on medical issues. Carol has three children RJ, Katherine, and Stephen – one daughter-in-law; Katie – two granddaughters; Isabella Marianna and Zoe Olivia – and one grandson, Alexander Paul. She also shares her life with her husband Gordon Duff, many cats, and two rescues.