Neanderthals May Have Been More Sensitive to Pain Than Most Humans
by Alex Fox/Smithsonianmag.com
Researchers looking to compare Neanderthals’ DNA to modern humans have historically only had a few low resolution genomes to choose from. But the team behind the new paper were able to produce three high-quality Neanderthal genomes from genetic material recovered from caves in Croatia and Russia, per Nature.
Researchers found a mutation to a gene called SCN9A that encodes a protein involved in sending pain signals to the spinal cord and brain on both chromosomes of all the Neanderthal genomes. Its presence on both chromosomes of all three genomes suggests it was common in the Neanderthal population, according to Nature.
Carol graduated from Riverside White Cross School of Nursing in Columbus, Ohio and received her diploma as a registered nurse. She attended Bowling Green State University where she received a Bachelor of Arts Degree in History and Literature. She attended the University of Toledo, College of Nursing, and received a Master’s of Nursing Science Degree as an Educator.
She has traveled extensively, is a photographer, and writes on medical issues. Carol has three children RJ, Katherine, and Stephen – one daughter-in-law; Katie – two granddaughters; Isabella Marianna and Zoe Olivia – and one grandson, Alexander Paul. She also shares her life with her husband Gordon Duff, many cats, and two rescues.