VT: In accordance with policy, the information below is totally unedited. This is the most reliable and most advanced analysis to date. Yes, it is from Israel. They are making their case and I strongly suggest that we take note.
The Roots of the COVID-19 Pandemic
BESA Center Perspectives Paper No. 1,847, December 14, 2020
[ Editor’s Note: VT’s early reporting of the coronavirus as having been a weaponized viral event has been confirmed by one of Israeli’s top bio-weapons experts, releasing his trove of information below.
As we have strived to help our readers become better absorbers of intelligence analysis, our starting point was always to not let yourself get caught up in just analyzing what clues that you can see that are right in front of you.
The reason for that is because often the biggest clues lead you to what is really going on is to spot what should be viewable, but is missing for some reason, a man made data or narrative gap. Spotting and following that thread can often be a breadcrumb trail to what some malevolent actors have been doing, like deploying a bio-weapons pandemic and not wanting to get caught doing so.
I present two major examples. First was the VT exposure of the North Carolina study in 2017, which incredibly did not expose who had funded the project until 2012. The report openly stated that its goal was to create “chimeras” (copies) of the Chinese bat virus for the purpose of testing its lethality. This was code talk for evaluating its potential bioweapons use, and why the Army’s Fort Detrick participation was hidden when the first internet report was published.
Our coverage was blacked out…no calls, no public criticism or denunciations, no interview requests, etc… just total silence. Not one in 10,000 Americans, maybe less, ever knew a thing about our reporting.
And our getting no calls from ‘professionals’ was a dead giveaway that they already knew but wanted to keep that undercover. Israeli Colonel Shoham lays this all out below in plain English, including his huge resume.
As I write, a new variation of Covid has emerged in Britain, which is in full lockdown mode with trains and buses not running and the Chunnel closed down. You cannot fly from London to Canada, Australia, or Europe, for example. But you can fly to the US. The doorway to spread the new Covid version here has been left open. Why? On whose authority?
Will VT once again be the only US media that views this as odd?
There is our bread crumb trail to begin following. Who would benefit from a new surge of a new virus which the current vaccines might not protect the public from, if in fact they will not? Does the Trump Steal dominating the news divert public attention from Covid?
Who could possibly not want the Biden regime to get the credit for killing Covid? Remember when Trump’s staff publicly stated “we cannot control Covid”, effectively signalling we now know that they were taking the route of herd immunity ‘solution’.
To that you can add the timing of the alleged Russian mega-hack. Why now? Who could possibly benefit from this? Did Russia really want to commit sanctions hari-kari by doing this in an election year and miss a chance to improve foreign relations with Biden?
Could it be a retaliation for something the US did to Russia? Has another party set Russia up to take the blame, something that is standard operation for all major psyops, to frame a scapegoat? … Jim W. Dean ]
First published on VT … December 21, 2020
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: There has been a notable shift in thinking on the genomic origin and direct source of the virus that sparked the COVID-19 pandemic. While the possibility of a natural contagion has not been ruled out, the alternative of an unnatural if primarily accidental contagion has gathered momentum, and with good reason.
The question of the genomic origin and direct source of the virus that set off the COVID-19 pandemic is being addressed in parallel by both science and intelligence agencies, with each using its own tools to compile hypotheses and draw conclusions.
The genomic origin of the index virus (the strain that infected Patient Zero) has been determined to be a Chinese bat virus that underwent extensive pre-adaptation to humans, including continual transmissibility, prior to infecting Patient Zero.
The open question is how, where, and when such exceptional genomic pre-adaptation took place.
On the surface, it appears that in this instance the probability of human intervention (of whatever kind) is higher than naturally occurring, spontaneous evolutionary adaptation, though it is difficult to comparatively quantify those two probabilities.
Another critical issue concerns significant mismatches and errors that occurred at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) and collateral Chinese institutions both in Wuhan and elsewhere in China during the decade preceding the onset of the pandemic, as well as thereafter.
A question arising from that inquiry is whether those mismatches and errors were cases of negligence or deliberate obfuscation. The latter unfortunately appears to be predominant.
The list of anomalies is long. It includes:
- scientific papers with incoherent data/findings
- unexplained gaps, inconsistencies, and contradictions
- meaningless and twisted chronologies
- illegitimate non-transparency
- elimination and distortion of records and databases
- obscuring and possible destruction of existing viruses (including the index virus) and genomic material
- pressure put on disobedient scientists, physicians, and officials
- disappearance of key persons
- expedient interchangeability between military/defense and civilian institutions (and other entities).
All this misconduct was allegedly meant to serve one principal purpose: to hamper the tracing of the roots of the index virus. These deliberate obfuscations collectively form a powerful argument in support of the unnatural contagion concept.
In further support of this argument, deliberate and systematic obfuscations about the real epidemic impact of the virus during the first months of the outbreak were recently unveiled in detail across 117 pages of leaked documents from the Hubei Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Wuhan is the capital of Hubei Province). These documents are largely marked classified and for internal use only.
No reference is made in the documents to the roots of the virus. Curiously, however, they do mention “facilities at a bacterial and toxic species preservation center.” “Bacterial” could refer to “microbial” (including viruses) and “toxic” to “virulent.”
This debate is very complicated and contains the potential for explosive revelations on many levels, but intelligence communities around the world have stayed largely silent on the matter. This is both intriguing and unsurprising. Several Western countries, as well as Russia, India, Japan, and Australia, had formed intelligence estimates as early as January 2020 but kept their conclusions quiet.
The very persistence of intelligence agencies’ silence implies that they judge the initial contagion to have been unnatural. Had they concluded that the pandemic resulted from a natural contagion, they would probably have made that conclusion public.
The US administration did indicate, several months ago, that unnatural contagion was likely, but no such statement has been formally released by US intelligence. At the levels of NATO and the “Five Eyes,” thorough intelligence estimates have likely been produced internally but they too have not been made public.
On the scientific level, as long as time passes without identification of a non-laboratory animal—with roughly the entirety of its viral genome—as the primary host of SARS-CoV-2, the argument that the initial contagion was unnatural gains indirect credibility. (It is fairly clear that the mink, while an important non-laboratory animal host, was not the direct source of the index virus.)
Independently, many scientists from various countries around the world, including Russia, maintain that the initial contagion was unnatural. They include, for example, Prof. Joseph Tritto of Italy, who is president of the World Academy of Biomedical Sciences and Technologies (an NGO founded in 1997 under the auspices of UNESCO). He has contended that:
…providing [by China] the virus [that infected Patient Zero] would have meant recognizing that SARS-CoV-2 was created in the laboratory. The presence of certain genomic inserts in a virus that developed in nature could never occur. The experiments at WIV attracted the interest of the Chinese military and medical-biological sector, which deals with biological weapons… Thus, physicians and biologists who belong to the Chinese political-military sphere joined the experiments… It is reasonable to think that Prof. Shi Zhengli (the principal investigator of WIV) acted only from the point of view of scientific prestige, without however taking into account the risks in terms of security and the political-military interests that the research would have aroused. …[T]he virus [was] created by means of genetic engineering in a military-supervised lab of WIV, and accidentally leaked.
Within the intelligence dimension, Tritto said in August that “negotiations are underway between the intelligence agencies of five countries—the US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan—and China. Perhaps the former, during diplomatic negotiations, would be willing to defer the Chinese responsibilities of which they have proof in exchange for the possibility of obtaining the [index] virus [in order] to develop a universal vaccine.”
In terms of vaccine development, it is of note that the most productive effort in China was conducted at the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products, a facility linked to the defense establishment that has been working with SARS-like viruses at its National Engineering Technology Research Center for Combined Vaccines, in collaboration with WIV, since 2017.
Like Prof. Tritto, senior Russian scientist Prof. Peter Chumakov (a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences) said Chinese scientists at WIV had taken extremely dangerous steps during their studies of tentative vaccines, including inserts in the genome, that gave the virus the ability to infect human cells.
He added: “No one excludes [the possibility] that behind the scientists stood curators who [pointed their] actions in another direction that they needed.” Various Chinese military institutes outside Wuhan also worked with important SARS-like bat viruses, often in collaboration with WIV.
The independent scientific argument posed by Italian, Russian, and many other scientists weakens the analyses that support natural contagion and strengthens the plausibility of the argument for unnatural contagion. Their reasoning and concept have been disputed but not convincingly refuted.
There is also speculation surrounding a mysterious, highly virulent, pneumonia-causing bat SARS-like virus that was in all probability isolated in 2012 in China from miners but that has strangely not been registered out in the open. The WIV was involved in that affair, too.
Prof. Stuart Newman, a leading expert at New York Medical College, called it “the best-sourced explanation yet of the origins of SARS-CoV-2.” It is probably not the sole possible root of the pandemic virus, but it nonetheless deserves special attention as it might have been the primordial key virus.
It would be extremely difficult to incriminate China conclusively as the developer of the index virus—whether or not it was created as a bioweapon, and whether or not it was intentionally released. Doing so could cause chaotic geopolitical polarization and prompt demands for retaliation against China. Refraining from any form of retaliation would be unreasonable if there were indeed conclusive proof, but retaliation could also wreak havoc on a massive scale.
A minimized blaming of China as guilty of a preventable accidental leakage of a naturally derived virus held in an academic lab is less likely to wreak such havoc, but the likelihood that this is in fact what the intelligence agencies have determined is decreasing with time. And even if that was the extent of China’s error, its devastating outcome—the spread of the virus across the rest of the world, with all the attendant consequences—remains.
Beyond the question of the mode through which the initial pandemic virus came into existence is the matter of compiling all possible vital information for developing an upgraded vaccine, anti-serum, and drug. Deciphering the roots of SARS-CoV-2 is hence highly desirable for many reasons, the main one being the need to fully comprehend the intrinsic sophistication of the virus—whether natural or man-made—so as to incapacitate it.
It is also essential to trace the roots of the virus completely in order to prevent the emergence of similar pathogens. In all senses (both scientific and intelligence-based), the roots of the virus will have to be uncovered thoroughly and objectively. This will be a global task.
One oddity is the uncanny clustering of certain peculiar properties, the common denominator of which is the exceptionally amplified and/or pathogenic affinities of the index virus toward humans. The likelihood that such a clustering took place naturally in the bio-geographic region of Wuhan is faint, but the likelihood that it took place inside WIV is high in view of the type of experiments on coronaviruses conducted there for years.
This is further supported by a large variety of collateral occurrences (the above-cited examples of misconduct), which should neither be ignored nor regarded as coincidental. The complicated interplay between science and intelligence is expected to objectively account for what occurred, but geopolitical forces and geostrategic vectors might hinder progress toward that clarity.
If the only thing at issue was the genomic origin or the direct source of the index virus, the whole matter would be much simpler. But the combination of the two supports the likelihood of an unnatural contagion. Close examination of the combination will prove much more meaningful than separate examinations of the two issues.
The roots of the pandemic virus are schematically analyzed in the following table.
Possible variations of the modes underlying the generation and appearance of SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, 2019, and their presumed likelihood interrelations
Table created by Dany Shoham
* The direct source represents the course through which Patient Zero contracted the virus.
** The genomic origin represents the way in which the genome of the virus that infected Patient Zero formed.
*** Within the context under discussion, an intentional release is basically regarded as unlikely at this point in time.
# Serial passages of capable precursor virus(es) in certain tissue cultures and/or lab animals, conducted in Wuhan.
## There could be, in principle, a combination of genetic engineering and evolvement via passages, in Wuhan.
The purple arrows represent ascending likelihoods (at different rates which are not indicated, except that intentional release is considered of lowest likelihood), while the green arrows represent roughly equivalent likelihoods.
Notably, each of the three variations related to accidental leakage (reading the table vertically) has two alternative sub-variations: either that the virus was the subject of academic study or that it was explored as a potential bioweapon. This is still an open question.
A definite precursor virus has not yet been found for any of the mentioned variations and sub-variations (10 in total). New scientific or intelligence findings might clarify the assessment summarized in the table. Only time will tell.
Lt. Col. (res.) Dr. Dany Shoham, a microbiologist and an expert on chemical and biological warfare in the Middle East, is a senior research associate at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies. He is a former senior intelligence analyst in the IDF and the Israeli Defense Ministry.
Dr. Dany Shoham is a senior researcher at the Begin-Sadat Center for Strategic Studies, Bar Ilan University, Israel and specialises on biological and chemical warfare in the Middle East and worldwide. At present he is Visiting Fellow at IDSA and his ongoing research focuses on biological weapons, chemical weapons, and related strategic and geopolitical aspects.
He holds Ph.D. in Medical Virology from the School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel and has researched and written extensively on the scientific and geostrategic aspects of Chemical and Biological weapons and related issues including terrorism, and geo-strategy in the Middle East and beyond. He has held visiting fellowships at various institutes of repute and extensively participated in international conferences on these issues.
Col. (res.) Dr. DANY SHOHAM
Publications (strategic studies plus life sciences):
Chapters in Books:
- Shoham, D., The Chemical and Biological Threat to Israel, in: The Threat of Ballistic Missiles in the Middle East; A. Stav (ed.), Sussex Press, Britain and ACPR, Israel, 2004, pp. 91-112.
- Shoham, D., The Chemical and Biological Threat of Islam; in: Muhammad’s Monsters; D. Bukay (ed.); Balfour Books, USA and ACPR, Israel, 2004, pp. 255-279.
- Shoham, D., Chemical and Biological Weapons in Syria, in: Peace with Syria: No Margin for Error, ACPR, Israel, pp. 32-48, 2000 Shoham D., The Chemical and Biological Threat to Israel; in: Political Strategy in an Era of Chaotic Change (Hebrew); A. Stav (ed.), Modan Publishers, pp. 171-179, 1997
- Shoham, D., Chemical and Biological Terrorism: An Intensifying Profile of a NonConventional Threat, Policy Paper No. 43, 34 pages, ACPR, Israel, 1998
- Shoham, D., The Evolution of Chemical and Biological Weapons in Egypt, Policy Paper No. 46, 63 pages, ACPR, Israel, 1998 Articles published in academic periodicals: Shoham D, Influenza type A virus: an outstandingly protean pathogen and a potent modular weapon, Crit Rev Microbiol, 2012 Jun 13. pp. 1-16, [Epub ahead of print]
- Shoham, D. and Ofek, R. The 2007 U.S. national intelligence estimate on the Iranian nuclear program: a colossal failure; International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 292-329, 2012
- Shoham, D., How will Iran retaliate to a strike on its nuclear facilities?
- Contemporary Security Policy, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 542-558, 2007 Shoham, D., and Jacobsen, S.T., Technical intelligence in retrospect: the 2001 anthrax letters powder, International J. of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 79-105, 2007
- Shoham, D., An antithesis on the fate of Iraq’s chemical and biological weapons, International J. of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 59-83, 2006.
- Shoham, D., Image versus the reality of Iranian chemical and biological weapons; International J. of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 89-141,
- Shoham, D., Libya: the first real case of deproliferation in the Middle East? Disarmament Diplomacy, pp. 40-46, May-June 2004.
- Shoham, D. and Wolfson, Z., The Russian biological weapons program: vanished or disappeared? Critical Reviews in Microbiology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 241-261,
- Shoham, D., The anthrax evidence points to Iraq, International J. of Intelligence and Counterintelligence, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 39-68, 2003.
- Shoham, D., Guile, gas, and germs: Syria’s ultimate weapons; Middle East Quarterly, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 53-61, 2002.
- Shoham, D., Poisoned missiles: Syria’s doomsday deterrent; Middle East Quarterly, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 13-20, 2002.
- Shoham, D., Iraq’s biological warfare agents: a comprehensive analysis; Critical Reviews in Microbiology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 179-204, 2000.
- Shoham, D., Chemical and biological terrorism: The Middle East as an arena and a threat; Proceed. International Conference on Global Security, Academy of Sciences and Literature, Mainz, pp. 324-339, 1999.
- Shoham, D., Does Saudi Arabia have or seek chemical or biological weapons? The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 122-130, 1999.
- Shoham, D. and Keynan, A., Scientific cooperation in agriculture and medical research as a means for normalizing relations between Egypt and Israel, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 866, pp. 182-199, Dec. 1998.
- Shoham, D., The Influence of Palestinian-Israeli academic encounters on the peace process, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 866, pp. 200-214, Dec. 1998.
Shoham, D., Chemical and biological weapons in Egypt; The Nonproliferation Review, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 48-58, 1998.
- Shoham, D., Chemical/biological terrorism: An old, but growing threat in the Middle East and elsewhere; Politics and the Life Sciences, pp. 218-219, Sep.1996. Begin-Sadat Mideast Security and Policy Studies
- Shoham, D. Chemical weapons in Egypt and Syria: Evolution, Capabilities, Control, no. 21, June 1995
- Shoham, D. Chemical and Biological Weapons in the Arab Countries and Iran – An Existential Threat to Israel? no. 43, December 1999
- Shoham, D. Contrasting Trends in WMD Proliferation in the Middle East: Iran and Libya,, no. 60, March 2005 Begin-Sadat Center Perspectives Papers on Current Affairs
- Shoham, D. and Ofek, R., Invisible Red Line: The Futility of Trying to Detect an Iranian Order to Build the Bomb, no. 174, Sep 2012
- Shoham, D. The Fate of Syria’s Chemical and Biological Weapons, No. 177, Oct 2012
- Articles published in non-academic periodicals:
- Shoham, D. Libya, Egypt and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Nativ, Vol. 9, No. 3:15-16, 1996
- Shoham, D. Chemical and biological terrorism: a sharper picture of a nonconventional threat, Nativ, vol 14, no 1:33-41, 2001
- Shoham, D. Iran and WMD by Seth carus – update and supplement, Nativ, vol 15, no 3: 42-44, 2002
- Shoham, D. The Israeli angle on the CIA document about WMD in Iraq, Nativ, vol 15, no 6:23-25, 2002
- Shoham, D. The new map of chemical and biological weapons in the Middle East, NATIVonline, vol 4, June 2004
- Shoham, D. The technology of chemical, biological and radiological warfare as a force multiplier in the future battlefield, Nativ, vol 18, no 3:41-48, 2005
- Shoham, D. Bioterrorism, Shalom – The European Jewish Times, vol 49, Fall 2008:15-17, 2008
- Shoham, D. The Syrian-Iranian nexus, Shalom – The European Jewish Times, vol 50, Fall 2009:14-16, 2009
- Shoham, D. Is American intelligence objective towards Iran’s nuclear program? Israel Defense, no 7, April 2012, page 96, 2012 Ofek, R. and Shoham D. A nuclear Iran – a clear and immediate danger, Israel Defense, no 11, December 2012:74-77, 2012
- Shoham, D. Getting offensive – the Syrian chemical-biological issue, CBRNe World (London), December 2012:41-46 Papers presented in international conferences:
- Shoham, D., The silent East-West frontline migration from Europe to the Middle East. The World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Mainz,
Germany, Sep. 2002.
- Shoham, D., The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction in the Middle East. The World Congress for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Mainz, Germany, Sep. 2002.
- Shoham, D., The Middle East as a facilitator of terrorism by weapons of mass destruction. The International Conference on International Terrorism and AntiTerrorism Cooperation, Shanghai, China, Nov. 2002.
Chapters in Books:
- Shoham, D., Is There a Critical Mass that Would Likely Trigger the Emergence of a Pandemic Avian Influenza Genotype? In: Viral Genomes: Diversity, Properties and Parameters (ed. Zhi Feng and Ming Long), Nova Publishers, New York, pp. 123-143, 2009
- Shoham, D., Bioterrorism, in: Handbook of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, John Wiley and Sons, Editor-in-Chief: Shayne Gad, pp. 1525-1651, June 2007
- Shoham, D., Viral Pathogens of Humans Likely to be Preserved in Natural Ice, in: Life in Ancient Ice (ed. John D. Castello and Scott O. Rogers), Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp. 208-226, 2005.
Articles published in professional periodicals:
- Jahangir A, Ruenphet S, Sultana N, Shoham D, and Takehara K, Genetic Analysis of Avian Influenza Viruses: Cocirculation of Avian Influenza Viruses with Allele A and B Nonstructural Gene in Northern Pintail (Anas acuta) Ducks Wintering in Japan, Influenza Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 847505, 10 pages, 2012. doi:10.1155/2012/847505
- Shoham D, Jahangir A, Ruenphet S and Takehara K, Persistence of avian influenza viruses in various artificially frozen environmental water types, Influenza Research and Treatment vol. 2012, Article ID 912326, 11 pages, doi:10.1155/2012/912326 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/irt/2012/912326/
- Shoham D, The Modes of Evolutionary Emergence of Primal and Late Pandemic Influenza Virus Strains from Viral Reservoir in Animals: An Interdisciplinary Analysis, Influenza Research and Treatment, vol. 2011, Article ID 861792, 27 pages, 2011. doi:10.1155/2011/861792
- Ruenphet S, Jahangir A, Shoham D, K. Takehara, Situation of Serum Antibodies against Newcastle Disease Virus in Slaughter-Age Ostriches after Vaccination Campaign in Japan. J Vet Med Sci, 2011, November 11, [Epub ahead of print]
- Ruenphet S, Jahangir A, Shoham D, Morikawa K, Miyoshi Y, Hanawa E, Okamura M, Nakamura M, Takehara K., Surveillance and characterization of Newcastle disease viruses isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan during 2006-09. Avian Diseases, vol 55 no 2, pp 230-235, 2011
- Jahangir A, Ruenphet S, Hara K, Shoham D, Sultana N, Okamura M, Nakamura M, Takehara K. Evaluation of human intestinal epithelial differentiated cells (Caco-2) for replication, plaque formation and isolation of avian influenza viruses. J Virol Methods, vol 169 no 1, pp 232-238, 2010
- Takehara K, Yamazaki K, Miyazaki M, Yamada Y, Ruenphet S, Jahangir A, Shoham D, Okamura M, Nakamura M., Inactivation of avian influenza virus H1N1 by photocatalyst under visible light irradiation, Virus Res, 151(1):102-3. vol 151 no 1, pp 102-103, 2010
- Jahangir A, Ruenphet S, Shoham D, Okamura M, Nakamaura M, Takehara K, aemagglutinin and Neuraminidase characterization of low pathogenic H5 and H7 avian influenza viruses isolated from Northern pintails (Anas acuta) in Japan, with special reference to genomic and biogeographical aspects, Virus Genes, vol 40 no 1, pp 94-105, 2010
- Jahangir A, Ruenphet S, Shoham D, Okamura M, Nakamaura M, Takehara K, Phenotypic, genetic, and phylogeographical characterization of avian influenza virus subtype H5N2 isolated from northern pintail (Anas acuta) in Japan. Virus Res, vol 145, no 2, pp
- Jahangir A, Ruenphet S, Ueda S, Ueno Y, Shoham D, Shindo J, Okamura M, Nakamura M,
- Takehara K,.Avian influenza and Newcastle disease viruses from northern pintail in Japan: isolation, characterization and inter-annual comparisons during 2006-2008, Virus Res, vol 143, no 1, pp 44-52, 2009
- Zhang G., Shoham D., Gilichinsky D., Davydov S., Castello J.D., Rogers S.O., Evidence for influenza A virus RNA in Siberian lake ice, J Virol., vol. 80, no. 24, pp. 12229-12235, 2006
- Shoham, D., Review: Molecular evolution and the feasibility of an avian influenza virus becoming a pandemic strain – a conceptual shift; Virus Genes, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 127-132, 2006
- Shoham, D. and Rogers, O.S., Greenland as a plausible springboard for transAtlantic avian influenza spread; Medical Hypotheses, vol. 67, no. 6, pp. 1460-1461, 2006
- Shoham, D., Biotic-abiotic mechanisms for long-term preservation and reemergence of influenza type A virus genes, Progress in Medical Virology, vol. 40, pp. 178-192, 1993.
- Lipkind, M., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Isolation of a Paramyxovirus from pigs in Israel and its antigenic relationships with avian paramyxoviruses. J. General Virol, 67: 427-439, 1986.
- Rozen, S., Hadani, R. Shoham, D., Parasitic mites (Acarina, Arachnidae) in wild birds trapped in poultry farms in Israel, Acarologia, 26 (1): 79-85, 1985.
- Lipkind, M., Horesntein, K., Shihmanter, E., Davidov, K., Shoham D., Retrospective identification as influenza virus of a hemagglutinating agent isolated from turkeys in Israel in 1973, Comp. Immun. Microb. Infect. Diseases., vol. 6, pp. 135-139, 1983.
- Lipkind, M., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Isolation of Yucaipa-like avian Paramyxovirus from wild mallard duck wintering in Israel, The Veterin. Rec., vol. 110, pp. 15-16, 1982.
- Lipkind, M., Shihmanter, E., Weisman, Y., Aronovici, A., Shoham, D., Characterization of yucaipa-like avian Paramyxoviruses isolated in Israel from domesticated and wild birds, Ann. Virol., vol. 133 E, pp. 152-161, 1982.
- Lipkind, M., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Further characterization of H7N7 avian influenza virus isolated from migrating starlings wintering in Israel, Zbl. Vet. Med. B., vol. 29, pp. 566-572, 1982.
- Lipkind, M., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Isolation of yucaipa-like viruses from cattle egrets in Israel, Zbl. Vet. Med. B., vol. 28, pp. 582-584, 1981.
- Lipkind, M., Shoham, D., Shihmanter, E., Isolation of influenza viruses from rock partridges in Israel, The Veterinary Records, vol. 109, p. 540, 1981.
- Lipkind, M.A., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Douglas A., Skehel, J.J., Characterization of avian influenza viruses isolated in Israel in 1978-1979, Comp. Immun.Microb. Infect. Diseases., vol. 3, pp. 185-192, 1980.
- Lipkind, M., Malkinson, N., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Akov, Y., Retroactive identification as an influenza virus of hemagglutinating agent isolated in Israel in 1971, The Veterin. Rec., vol. 107, p. 401, 1980.
- Lipkind, M.A., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Aronovici, A., The isolation of yucaipa-like Paramixoviruses from Epizootics of a Respiratory Disease in turkey poultry farms in Israel, The Veterin. Rec., vol. 510, pp. 577-578, 1979.
- Lipkind, M.A., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Yuval, C., Aronovici, A., Identification of avian influenza virus isolated from a turkey farm in Israel, The Veterin. Rec., vol. 510, pp. 534-535, 1979.
- Lipkind, M.A., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Identification of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild mallard ducks in Israel, The Veterin. Rec., vol. 105, p. 558, 1979.
- Lipkind, M.A., Weisman, Y., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., The first isolation of animal influenza virus in Israel, The Veterin. Rec., vol. 105, pp. 510-522, 1979.
- Klingberg M.A., Shoham D., Costin C., Roitman M., Horenstein L., Swartz T., Influenza surveillance in Israel, 1976-77, Med. Microbiol. Immunol. (Berl). 166(1-4):249-54, 1978
- Shoham, D., Yom-Tov, Y., Mendelssohn, H., Range increase and breeding biology of the palm dove (St. senegalensis) in Israel, Israel J. Zool., 23 (3);307-309, 1976.
Papers presented at international conferences:
- Shoham, D., Rogers, S. and Gilichinsky, D., Ice as the regenerator of influenza type A viruses and its possible contribution to the dynamics of current ‘Avian Flu’ strains. International Conference on Alpine and Polar Microbiology, Innsbruck, March 2006
- Shoham, D., Perennial arctic ice as an ultimate medium for preservation and reemergence of influenza type A viruses; International Conference on Conservation and Transformation of Matter and Energy in the Earth Cryosphere; Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino, June, 2001.
- Lipkind, M., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Serological surveillance of horse population in Israel: finding of antibodies against equine influenza viruses, The 10 Israeli Veterinary Medicine Symposium, 1985.
- Lipkind, M., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Circulation of influenza viruses in husbandry populations in Israel, Annual Meeting of the Israeli Society for Microbiology, 1984.
- Lipkind, M., Shihmanter, E., Shoham, D., Review of three years studies on the ecology of avian influenza in Israel, The First Intern. Sym. Avian Influenza, Wisconsin, 198