Summer is slowly approaching, and it is full of sun and joy but also some potential dangers. How can we deal with summer emergencies? In this article we will summarize how to prevent or deal with the most common summer accidents to enjoy the summer months as painlessly as possible. While we are waiting for current restrictions to lift and summer to come to enjoy the sun and all summer activities available to us you may in the meanwhile want to check out Betting Sites.
The high temperatures of summer can become threatening especially for vulnerable groups such as infants, the chronically ill, the elderly over 65 but also for healthy adults, mainly due to intense exercise.
It causes the inability of our body temperature control mechanisms to function. Thus a high heat load accumulates and is not eliminated, and the body temperature can very quickly exceed 40 degrees Celsius, creating very serious complications.
Signs of heat stroke include fever, tachycardia, headache, dizziness and nausea, nausea and vomiting, dry-skin and red skin.
It is important to recognize the symptoms and provide first aid such as:
- Transport in a shady, cool, and ventilated place.
- Soak the patient with lukewarm water or shower.
- Compress with cold water or ice packs in the groin / armpits.
The goal is to reduce the body temperature below 38.5 degrees and provide immediate medical assistance.
Prevention measures to prevent heat stroke
- Consume plenty of fluids.
- Limit exposure to the sun.
- Limit strenuous exercise.
- Do not consume alcohol
- Dress in light clothing
- Care for vulnerable groups as well as pay special attention to patients with cardiovascular disease & patients who use psychotropic or sedative drugs.
Prolonged sun exposure is known to cause burns to human skin. Sunburn is a tissue damage caused mainly by UVB and secondarily by UVA radiation and its severity is the result of many factors such as the duration of exposure, time, altitude, skin type (higher risk in light skin), age (greater sensitivity for infants and children), altitude etc.
Sunburn usually occurs in the first 12-24 hours but if the exposure is excessive it can occur in 2-3 hours. In the burn, depending on its severity, we observe from simple redness and pain in the affected area, to intense redness with skin swelling and blisters, while in very severe and infrequent cases we observe generalized complications.
- Stay in a shady, cool environment.
- Avoid exposure to the sun, especially between the hours 10 am-4pm.
- Avoid sun exposure for newborns.
- Correct choice of sunscreen with a wide range of protection for both UVA and UVB radiation.
- Proper application of the sunscreen with regular repetition, especially after intense sweating or swimming and of course with the appropriate protection index SPF 30 and above.
The surface of the burn needs constant hydration, while depending on the nature of the burn, we proceed with antiseptic and use either cortisone creams to treat edema, or when there is a risk of infection, antibiotic creams. It is taken for granted that there should be no further exposure to the sun for several days and it is recommended for each of us a medical visit every year for a dermatological examination as in areas where there is damage in the future the possibility of carcinogenesis increases. The area remains sensitive for many months afterwards, so it is necessary to apply sunscreen.
In the field of allergies, the spring that holds the first place gives the baton to the summer where we observe a series of allergic diseases, some of which need special attention as they can become life threatening. The most important and most common allergic diseases are:
- Allergic reactions after a sting (bee, wasp, mosquito).
- Food allergies mainly due to foods consumed during the summer months.
- Urticaria – allergic skin diseases.
People who are at risk of developing allergic shock
Severe allergic symptoms can develop into systemic anaphylaxis, allergic shock, i.e. urticaria, difficulty breathing, drop in blood pressure, etc., which is known to be fatal, if not prevented and treated in time.
A patient who knows that he is at risk of developing allergic shock, must necessarily carry with him everywhere and always the immediate treatment drugs, as prescribed by his allergist, while it is crucial that he and his companions know the use of the pen adrenaline if necessary.
Hymenoptera venom allergy (bee or wasp).
A bee or wasp sting usually causes a small reaction locally (redness, pain, and mild swelling). Especially for sensitized people, precautionary and preventive measures are considered necessary.
- ALWAYS HAVE THE FIRST AID KIT WITH YOU!
- Avoid brightly colored clothes.
- Avoid strong perfumes and cosmetics.
- Avoid being near places that attract wasps and bees.
- Avoid eating food or juices in the countryside.
- Always do gardening with gloves, a hat, and long clothes.
- It is recommended for motorcyclists to avoid riding with an open helmet.
- Pay special attention in the afternoon as the hymenoptera are more aggressive.
The majority of food allergies in the summer are caused by seafood (fish, shellfish) and fruits. The reaction ranges from simple itching in the mouth and lips to allergic shock. The best precaution in this case is prevention, i.e. we do not consume food that has been found to cause allergic reactions to us.
Allergic skin diseases – urticaria
Urticaria is a transient skin rash that appears in the form of embossed lesions that show redness and itching.
In the summer months we most often encounter natural urticaria caused by the sun (mainly), the cold stimulus (occurs in the summer from the low temperature of the sea and is due to the change of body temperature) but also photodermatitis caused by the combination of the sun exposure and administration of drugs either topically or orally but also from various non-pharmaceutical topical products.
The best treatment is prevention for people who are sensitive.
For cases when we encounter such an allergic reaction for the first time, always with the advice of our doctor or pharmacist, use either topical corticosteroids or antihistamines which it is good to have with you in the First Aid box.
Gastroenteritis in summer
Gastroenteritis is an inflammation of the intestine that manifests itself with vomiting, abdominal pain, headache, fever, diarrhea, and the high summer temperatures favor the development of infectious agents. Gastroenteritis is either viral or bacterial in origin (water or food).
The most basic prevention tips are:
- Observe the rules of hygiene.
- Eat safe food and water.
- In case of travelling to high-risk countries, appropriate measures must be taken (consumption of bottled water, avoidance of raw or undercooked food, etc.)
To avoid transmission (for as long as the symptoms last and for two more days):
- Avoid handling food.
- Avoid crowded places.
- Avoid places that host vulnerable people such as nurseries, nursing homes, etc.
The treatment of the disease is done on a case-by-case basis with the prescribed medication by the doctor.