… by Jeff Smith, Science Editor
[ Editor’s note: Based on the import of the material and new readers coming on of late, this is something from a few weeks ago that could use a revisit. From time to time over the past few months, we have delved into areas where we have had to, for reasons of “national security,” release classified material allegorically while supplementing recently declassified material, often “hard science,” in an attempt to provide the persistent researcher a roadmap.
We aren’t going to state that UFO’s are “real.” Believers and deniers have had decades to decide. We will simply tell you exactly how they work. You can decide for yourself if they exist or not. We simply tell you exactly how they do what they do “if they existed” which is none of our business, if you get my meaning. ]
Flying saucers function by ionizing the air surrounding their spacecraft produced by radiation exposure to their surface structure. They “thin” the local gravitational field by separating the ions with a strong magnetic field so they are effectively flying through a rarefied atmosphere similar in composition to the ionosphere.
The diminished pressure gradients eases the boundary layer effects between the saucer’s hull and the atmosphere, thereby substantially reducing or completely eliminating the effects of Gravity. The production of a magnetic over-gradient in the atmosphere surrounding the space craft creates a counterbary to the effects of gravity. (Magnetic buoyancy).
Flying saucers have been using microwave and or neutron radiation to reduce plasma-air density in the atmosphere surrounding the saucer’s edge by simply heating or turning the air into an ionizing plasma. It has previously been suggested that the transfer of photon momentum (hv/c) is employed in repel the ionized air molecules. However, only thermal and magnetic effects are considered in this analysis, although photon momentum transfer will enhance the net effect.
The reduction of both inertial and viscous drag are envisioned because the saucer encounters an artificially rarefied troposphere. Moreover, radiation symmetry covering the edges of the saucer prevents turbulent collapse of the air flow and instead yields a smooth laminar pattern. Thus, these saucers can travel at supersonic velocities at sea level without a sonic boom because the Mach speed increases with decreasing air density. The hot ionizing air (plasma) surrounding the saucers produces their familiar appearance. They light up like a light bulb.
Heating the air around an aircraft has been previously suggested as a means to reduce shock waves and ease flight. Suggested direct methods for heating the air (e.g. by combustion or by nuclear radiation) for purposes of eliminating an aircraft’s “sonic boom” can be done by the injection and ignition of fuel in front of an aircraft so air density could be reduced.
The use of a forward firing laser energy source to reduce air drag and eliminate sonic booms has been tested on the Aurora space plane. IE. Donuts on a rope contrails. All the above techniques heat the atmosphere by some means. The key to creating artificial magnetic buoyancy weight reduction and aerodynamic drag reduction is by the thermal ionization of the gas particles surrounding a space craft in flight.
The Oxygen microwave absorption peak occurs almost exactly at 60 GHz, and this energy source is proposed as the primary RF radiated by the UFO. Both H2O and O2 molecules have substantial dipoles which can easily be excited by microwave radiation.
See Figure 1. This is not the case with the Nitrogen molecules as they have no significant dipoles. While two H2O and one O2 absorption bands exist at higher frequencies there would be no need to use them. The strong Oxygen band (60 GHz) will be encountered in any terrestrial atmosphere. Megawatt level microwave power tubes that operate at 60 GHz are commercially available.
|Attenuation Band Media||Attenuation Band Center|
|First H2O Band||22.2 GHz|
|First O2 Band||60 GHz|
|Second O2 Band||119 GHz|
|Second H2O Band||180 GHz|
|Third H2O Band||320 GHz|
Figure 1. Atmospheric Attenuation Of Microwave Radiation.
If the 60 GHz RF signal is transmitted with a 0.0012 duty cycle from antennas (about 13 centimeters high) encircling the saucer, producing a +/- 1.24o beam. The air is heated with power producing ionization of the O2molecules up to 6 meters from the saucer’s rim, causing a visible glow. The O2 shares energy with the Nitrogen, heating a 2 meter high, 30 meter wide stream of onrushing (1000 mph) air to 2100o K.
The RF excited O2 molecules will transfer some of their thermal energy to Nitrogen (N2) molecules and produce a brilliant, dazzling luminosity (known as plasma). The colors are likely the result of energy radiating and re-radiation from H+, H2, OH- and H2O ions. Oxygen and water vapor molecules glow, especially about the saucer’s rim, because microwave energy (attuned to the rotational rate of these molecules) is being used to excite them.
This glow’s exact color is difficult to anticipate due to complex radiation and re-radiation from water molecules, related ions and other impurities. For example, Hydrogen ions – formed from water molecules – will glow a bluish green color. The plasma, near the antenna’s aperture (located around the saucer’s rim) would normally be bluish, but Sodium ions (from the sea’s salt) will modify it causing a yellowish color. Only minor plasma distortions are found on high speed UFOs.
The ion-air density (and the inertial drag) surrounding the space craft could be reduced by a factor of 7 (Boyle’s law) if the air has been heated to 2100o K. A 30 meter saucer’s large surface area would serve as an effective radiator. Inertial drag is linearly proportional to the air density but proportional to the square of the aircraft’s velocity. Thus, the saucer could fly 2.8 times faster than the speed of sound.
Viscous drag forces could also be reduced because the accumulation of boundary layer fluid (air) on the surface of the saucer is diminished. A conventional way sometimes suggested to reduce this accumulation of air adhering to conventional aircraft’s wings is to suck it into the wing through slots and then exhaust it through the rear of the aircraft (or its wings).
If the saucer’s skin is conductive (e.g. metallic) and if the 60 GHz antenna is loosely coupled to it, a small amount of the microwave or neutron radiation will leak onto the fuselage. This radiation will spread over the saucer’s surface, heating the adhering air and dispelling it thereby reducing viscous drag. It will also push back any magnetic field lines due to what is called a “plasma induced electron disconnect” with the surrounding localized magnetic fields.
At supersonic speeds, the pressure field is confined to a region at the rear and extends from a conventional aircraft in a widening (Mach) cone. When it intersects the earth, a “sonic boom” is often heard. A “sonic boom” is a type of shock wave that occurs when waves generated by a source over a period of time add together in a coherent manner (re-enforcing peaks and deepening troughs). IE A Scalier wave.
This process is much like the way a V shaped bow wave is created by a motor boat when its speed is greater than the speed of the waves naturally supported by the water. The decreased pressure gradient at the front of the saucer destroys the coherency of the pressure fronts and they do not add together coherently. Thus, the “sonic boom” is reduced or completely eliminated. This is analogous to the effect of using a bulbous bow rather that a straight sharp (motor boat) bow on large ships. Such bows enables these large vessels to more effectively (and economically) pass through the ocean.
The hot ionized air bubble surrounding the space craft streamlines it. The pressure gradients acting on the boundary layer between the ambient air and the space craft are dramatically reduced, because they are distributed evenly over an area of several meters for saucer shaped space craft, versus several centimeters for airplanes.
For a normal airplane, the drag coefficient always rises as the Mach number approaches unity, but thereafter it may fall. The hot air or ionized gas bubble surrounding a saucer shaped airframe reduces the power that is needed to be expended at supersonic speeds. This is due to the coherent addition of pressure waves surrounding the saucer being degraded. This will reduce or eliminate the energy transmitted to the shock front thereby reducing or eliminating the “sonic boom” which otherwise would be caused by a high-speed passage of the saucer.
The emission of ionizing radiation in the air surrounding the saucer will also attenuate the transmission and reception of radar signals unless the ionizing radiation is intermittent. Due to this effect it is suggested that the saucers utilizes a 60 GHz magnetron tube operating with a 50% duty cycle that would be turned off for 833 microseconds and on for 833 microseconds every at a 1667 microsecond pulse rate interval.
Thus, the air’s O2 molecules would be heated for 833 microseconds every time they moved about a half meter closer to the saucer. A circular phased array radar antenna located on the saucer’s outer rim and operating with pulsed RF in the L or S band, would serve nicely for this purpose. A proposed circular or triangular shaped space craft would work well using this type of propulsion system for a low earth orbit space craft launched from the earth.
The term plasma refers to a high-temperature, ionized gas that is electrically neutral. The motion of the gas is dominated by electromagnetic interactions and because it is a excellent conductor, plasmas interacts directly with electromagnetic fields. The study of plasmas is called hydromagnetic or magneto hydrodynamics. This is the key to gravity and magnetic buoyancy. ” Plasma interacts directly with Electromagnetic fields. The motion of the gas is dominated by its electromagnetic interactions”. IE. Gravity.
Modem plasma physics holds that the plasma fireball receives its energy from its surroundings by the naturally created electro magnetic field lines of the earth and that the diameter of the plasma sphere depends on the frequency of the external field that plasma resonance occurs at.
This means that if you burn hydrogen / Deuterium gas in a microwave oven you will get a 3 centimeter diameter sized plasma fire ball creating nuclear fusion in a home microwave oven. It is called a Farnsworth Fuser. Look it up on wiki. Also the Poulsen plasma arc transmitter / furnace dose the same thing but only with magnetic containment. This was the German technique used during WW1 and 2.
This is the Light bulb with a tungsten coated filament in the microwave experiment. Try it. Just put a clear light bulb in the microwave and see what happens. PS use an old microwave oven it will melt the paint job…..AND USE SAFETY GLASSES. FIRE EXTINGUISHER ETC. WARNING, DANGER WILL ROBSON. IT CAN GO BANG. Kids don’t do this at home……
Black triangles are a class of unidentified flying objects, or UFOs, with certain common features which have reportedly been observed during the 20th and 21st centuries. Media reports of black triangles originally came from the United States and United Kingdom. The aircraft may be related to the rumored USAF Aurora aircraft developmental program.
Reports generally describe this class of UFOs as large, silent, black triangular objects hovering or slowly cruising at low altitudes over cities and highways. Sightings usually take place at night. These objects are often described as having pulsing colored lights that appear at each corner of the triangle.
Aurora was a rumored mid-1980s American reconnaissance aircraft. There is no substantial evidence that it was ever built or flown and it has been termed a myth. The U.S. government has consistently denied such an aircraft was ever built. Aviation and space reference site Aerospace web.org concluded “The evidence supporting the Aurora is circumstantial or pure conjecture, there is little reason to contradict the government’s position.”
Others come to different conclusions. In 2006, veteran black project watcher and aviation writer Bill Sweetman said, “Does Aurora exist? Years of pursuit have led me to believe that, yes, Aurora is most likely in active development, spurred on by recent advances that have allowed technology to catch up with the ambition that launched the program a generation
The Aurora legend started in March 1990, when Aviation Week & Space Technology magazine broke the news that the term “Aurora” had been inadvertently included in the 1985 U.S. budget, as an allocation of $455 million for “black aircraft production” in FY 1987. According to Aviation Week, Project Aurora referred to a group of exotic aircraft, and not to one particular airframe.
Funding of the project allegedly reached $2.3 billion in fiscal 1987, according to a 1986 procurement document obtained by Aviation Week. In the 1994 book Skunk Works, Ben Rich, the former head of Lockheed’s Skunk Works division, wrote that the Aurora was the budgetary code name for the stealth bomber fly-off that resulted in the B-2 Spirit.
By the late 1980s, many aerospace industry observers believed that the U.S. had the technological capability to build a Mach-5 replacement for the aging Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird. Detailed examinations of the U.S. defense budget claimed to have found money missing or channeled into black projects.
By the mid-1990s, reports surfaced of sightings of unidentified aircraft flying over California and the United Kingdom involving odd-shaped contrails, sonic booms and related phenomena that suggested the US had developed such an aircraft. Nothing ever linked any of these observations to any program or aircraft type, but the name Aurora was often tagged on these as a way of explaining the observations.
In the controversial claims of Bob Lazar, he states that during his employment at the mysterious S-4 facility in Nevada, he briefly witnessed an Aurora flight while aboard a bus near Groom Lake. He claimed that there was a “tremendous roar” which sounded almost as if “the sky was tearing.”
Although Lazar only saw the aircraft for a moment through the front of the bus, he described it as being “very large” and having “two huge, square exhausts with vanes in them.” Upon speaking with his supervisor, Lazar claims he was informed that the aircraft was indeed an “Aurora,” a “high altitude research plane.” He was also told that the aircraft was powered by “liquid methane.”
By 1996 reports associated with the Aurora name dropped off in frequency, suggesting to people who believed that the aircraft existed that it had only ever been a prototype or that it had had a short service life.
In 2000, Aberdeen Press and Journal writer Nic Outterside wrote a piece on US stealth technology in Scotland. Citing confidential ‘sources’ he alleged RAF/USAF Machrihanish in Kintyre, Argyll to be a base for Aurora aircraft. Machrihanish’s almost two-mile-long long runway makes it suitable for high-altitude and experimental aircraft with the fenced-off coastal approach making it ideal for takeoffs and landings to be made well away from eyes or cameras of press and public. ‘Oceanic Air Traffic Control at Prestwick’ Outterside says, ‘also tracked fast-moving radar blips. It was claimed by staff that a “hypersonic jet was the only rational conclusion” for the readings.
In 2006, aviation writer Bill Sweetman put together 20 years of examining budget “holes”, unexplained sonic booms, along with the Gibson sighting and concluded: “This evidence helps establish the program’s initial existence. My investigations continue to turn up evidence that suggests current activity.
For example, having spent years sifting through military budgets, tracking untraceable dollars and code names, I learned how to sort out where money was going. This year, when I looked at the Air Force operations budget in detail, I found a $9-billion black hole that seems a perfect fit for a project like Aurora.”