Jacob Schiff, the Master Puppeteer, Capo of the World who started Two World Wars

1
1585
THE MASTER PUPPETEER
THE JEWISH BANKER/BANK WHO FINANCED THE YOUNG TURKS, THE JAPANESE/RUSSIAN WAR, 
THE BOLSHEVIK REVOLUTION, & BOTH WORLD WARS
 
Jacob Schiff proposed that the First World War be the war to end all wars, which became an international mantra after the war. The absolute end of all war heralded the Jewish Messianic Era in which the Jews would be “restored” to Palestine, where they would rule the world from Jerusalem.

Jewish bankers deliberately created the First World War in order to artificially fulfill Jewish Messianic prophecy by staging the “Battle of Armageddon”, by creating a World government run by Jews known as “The League of Nations”, by “restoring” the Jews to Palestine, by destroying the Empires and Monarchies, by enslaving the Gentiles with Bolshevism, by placing the wealth of the World in Jewish hands, etc. etc. etc.
Schiff believed that the First World War fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 2:1-4, which states,
“1 The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem. 2 And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD’s house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. 3 And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4 And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.”
*************
THE JEWISH ZIONIST/BOLSHEVIK MESSIAH:
“The mashiach [Jewish messiah] will bring about the political and spiritual redemption of the Jewish people by bringing us back to Israel and restoring Jerusalem (Isaiah 11:11-12; Jeremiah 23:8; 30:3; Hosea 3:4-5). He will establish a government in Israel that will be the center of all world government, both for Jews and gentiles (Isaiah 2:2-4; 11:10; 42:1). He will rebuild the Temple and re-establish its worship (Jeremiah 33:18).

He will restore the religious court system of Israel and establish Jewish law as the law of the land (Jeremiah 33:15)…The world after the messiah comes is often referred to in Jewish literature as Olam Ha-Ba (oh-LAHM hah-BAH), the World to Come…In the Olam Ha-Ba, the whole world will recognize the Jewish G-d as the only true G-d, and the Jewish religion as the only true religion (Isaiah 2:3; 11:10; Micah 4:2-3; Zechariah 14:9).”
— From “Mashiach: The Messiah”, Judaism 101 —–
 
“The Jewish people as a whole will become its own Messiah. It will attain world dominion by the dissolution of other races, by the abolition of frontiers, the annihilation of monarchy and by the establishment of a world republic in which the Jews will everywhere exercise the privilege of citizenship. In this New World Order the “children of Israel” will furnish all the leaders without encountering opposition.

The Governments of the different peoples forming the world republic will fall without difficulty into the hands of the Jews. It will then be possible for the Jewish rulers to abolish private property and everywhere to make use of the resources of the state. Thus will the promise of the Talmud be fulfilled, in which is said that when the Messianic time is come, the Jews will have all the property of the whole world in their hands.”
–Baruch Levy, Letter to Karl Marx, ‘La Revue de Paris’, p.574, June 1, 1928
JACOB SCHIFF AND THE GENOCIDE OF THE RUSSIAN PEOPLE
The German-Jewish banker Jacob H. Schiff was the Rothschild syndicate’s most prominent representative in their genocidal war on the Russian People. Schiff implemented the Rothschild’s plan to genocide the Russian People and steal the wealth of the Russian nation. The Rothschilds and Schiffs had shared a residence in Frankfurt, Germany. The Schiffs are still prominent figures in America.
Russia supported the Union in the American Civil War and subverted the Rothschilds’ plan to divide America into two opposing nations which the bankers could perpetually pit against one another, as they had done to the nations of Europe. Russia was a tested and proven ally of the United States which defended America against European intrusion into the Civil War.
As Jewish bankers again take aim at Russia and America, we ought to recognize the danger of the situation for the Russian People, and the American People.
History teaches us that Jewish leaders are capable of treachery and genocidal murder, the scale of which can only be understood by examining the facts.
Many Americans have wondered how the tragedy of the Soviet Union and the Red Terror could possibly have occurred, when the World could so easily have stopped the criminals, so few were they.
History is repeating itself. Ask yourself what you and your government, your neighbors, your press, your church. . . what is anyone doing to stop the Jewish “revolutions” being prepared for America and Russia?
The attempted Russian Revolution of 1905 was widely known at the time to have been the work of Jews, and many Jews took great pride in that fact. For example, The Maccabean of London wrote in an article entitled “A Jewish Revolution” on page 250 in November of 1905,
“The revolution in Russia is a Jewish revolution, a crisis in Jewish history. It is a Jewish revolution because Russia is the home of about half the Jews of the world, and an overturning of its despotic government must have a very important influence on the destinies of the millions living there and on the many thousands who have recently emigrated to other countries. But the revolution in Russia is a Jewish revolution also because Jews are the most active revolutionists in the Tsar’s empire.”
As quoted in: L. Fry, Waters Flowing Eastward: The War Against the Kingship of ChristTBR Books, Washington, D. C., (2000), p. 40.
William Eleroy Curtis delivered an address to the National Geographic Society on 14 December 1906, in which he stated, among other things,
“THE VENGEANCE OF THE JEWS
Perhaps these reforms are the cause of the present tranquillity, because the revolutionary leaders nearly all belong to the Jewish race and the most effective revolutionary agency is the Jewish Bund, which has its headquarters at Bialystok, where the massacre occurred last June.

The government has suffered more from that race than from all of its other subjects combined. Whenever a desperate deed is committed it is always done by a Jew, and there is scarcely one loyal member of that race in the entire Empire.

The great strike which paralyzed the Empire and compelled the Czar to grant a constitution and a parliament was ordered and managed by a Jew named Krustaleff, president of the workingmen’s council, a young man only thirty years old. He was sent to the penitentiary for life, and had not been behind the bars more than three weeks when he organized and conducted a successful strike of the prison employees.
Maxim, who organized and conducted the revolution in the Baltic provinces, is a Jew of marvelous ability. Last fall he came over here lecturing and collecting money to carry on the revolutionary campaign, but for some reason has vanished and nobody seems to know what has become of him.
Gerschunin, the most resourceful leader of the terrorists, who was condemned to life imprisonment in the silver mines on the Mongolian frontier, has recently escaped in a water cask, and is supposed to be in San Francisco. He is a Polish Jew only twenty-seven years old. I might enumerate a hundred other revolutionary leaders and every one of them would be a Jew.

Wherever you read of an assassination or of the explosion of a bomb you will notice in the newspaper dispatches that the man was a Jew. The most sensational and dramatic episode that has occurred since the mutinies was on October 27, when, in the very center of Saint Petersburg, at the entrance of Kazan Cathedral, four Jews held up a treasury wagon and captured $270,000.

They passed the package to a woman, who instantly vanished, and no trace of her has ever been found; but they were all arrested and were promptly punished. On the 8th of November a few Jewish revolutionaries entered a treasury car near Ragow, in Poland, got $850,000 and disappeared.
Every deed of that kind is done by Jews, and the massacres that have shocked the universe, and occurred so frequently that the name ‘pogrom’ was invented to describe them, were organized and managed by the exasperated police authorities in retaliation for crimes committed by the Jewish revolutionists.”—
W. E. Curtis, “The Revolution in Russia”, The National Geographic Magazine, Volume 18, Number 5, (May, 1907), pp. 302-316, at 313-314.
In preparation for the 1905 revolution, the Jewish bankers manufactured a war between Russia and Japan. They had long been conducting an economic war against Russia, which weakened the nation. The bankers wanted to further weaken Russia with war in order to make it frail and ripe for revolution, and to drive it deeper into debt and to collapse the economy.

Their near absolute control over the international press enabled them to blame the Czar for all of the problems which the Jewish bankers were deliberately causing the Russian People. They pitted the World against Russia, and turned the Russian People against the Russian Government and scapegoated the Czar for Jewish crimes.
Jacob H. Schiff worked against American interests and destroyed America’s faithful Civil War ally, Czarist Russia. John Hays Hammond gave testimony in The New York Times to the fact that Jewish bankers had ruined Russia in the Russo-Japanese war, on 18 November 1911, on page 2,
“I, however, convinced them that there was no lack of friendliness toward Russians on the part of Americans, who remembered Russia’s friendship to us at the time of our civil war. [***] Mr. Jacob H. Schiff has done more to accentuate the troubles of his co-religionists in Russia than any other one man, because of his boastful statement that the money of Jewish bankers had made it possible for Japan to wage a successful war against Russia.”—http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?_r=1&res=9E03E2DD1E31E233A2575BC1A9679D946096D6CF&oref=slogin http://query.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=9E03E2DD1E31E233A2575BC1A9679D946096D6CF
John Hays Hammond had intimate ties to high finance and close contacts in Russia. [See: J. H. Hammond, The Autobiography of John Hays Hammond; Illustrated with Photographs, In Two Volumes, Farrar & Rinehart, incorporated, New York, (c1935); reprinted: Arno Press, New York, (1974), see especially: Chapter 23, “Russia”, pp. 454-478.] The bankers’ involvement in the Russo-Japanese war is detailed in the article Takahashi Korekiyo, the Rothschilds and the Russo-Japanese War, 1904-1907, http://www.rothschildarchive.org/ib/articles/AR2006Japan.pdf
In The New York Times, on 24 March 1917, on pages 1-2, George Kennan explained how Jacob H. Schiff assisted Russia’s enemies and how Schiff financed and trained Russian revolutionaries. Note that Imperial Japan and the Soviet State, which Schiff created, both became virulent enemies of the United States, enemies who came to power under Jacob Schiff’s tutelage and financial patronage. Note that Jewish bankers created the enemies of the United States and financed their wars against Americans,
“PACIFISTS PESTER TILL MAYOR CALLS THEM TRAITORS
—————-
Socialists at Carnegie Hall Fail to Make Russian Celebration a Peace Meeting.
—————-
RABBI WISE READY FOR WAR
—————-
Sorry We Cannot Fight with the German People to Overthrow Hohenzollerism.
—————-
KENNAN RETELLS HISTORY
—————-
Relates How Jacob H. Schiff Financed Revolution Propaganda in Czar’s Army.
—————-
The most violent clash between patriots and pacifists that has occurred in New York City since relations were broken with Germany marked the celebration of the Russian revolution held last night in Carnegie Hall.

It was precipitated by Mayor Mitchel, whose declaration that we were about to go to war in behalf of the same kind of democracy that had freed Russia was met with a determined demonstration by pacifists, evidently previously organized, which threatened for a time to break up the meeting.
After the uproar had lasted for fifteen minutes, the Mayor, white with anger, stepped to the edge of the stage and shouted:
 
‘This country is on the verge of war—’ A loud chorus of ‘No’ greeted him, but above the tumult he made his voice heard with: ‘And I say to you in the galleries that tonight we are divided into only two classes—Americans and traitors!’

‘I hope they put you in the first ranks,’ shouted a leader of the pacifists.
‘You do me the greatest honor,’ replied the Mayor, and the applause which followed, coupled with the ejection of some of the trouble makers, gave the Mayor’s supporters the majority.
 
The meeting started in orderly fashion. The century old fight of Russian revolutionists was pictured in glowing words, matched by the promise of the Russia to be.
 
On the front of the speaker’s stand hung a pair of leg irons, from a Siberian prison. They were unlocked. An authority on Russian affairs, George Kennan, told of how a movement by the Society of the Friends of Russian Freedom, financed by Jacob H. Schiff, had at the time of the Russo-Japanese war spread among 50,000 Russian officers and men in Japanese prison camps the gospel of the Russian revolutionists. ‘And,’ said Mr. Kennan, ‘we know how the army helped the Duma in the bloodless revolution that made the new Russia last week.’

The galleries were largely filled with Socialists, downstairs an admission fee had been charged and the crowd was more orderly until awakened by the protestations of the pacifists.

Mayor Mitchel was introduced by Herbert Parsons, President of the Society of Friends of Russian Freedom, as a ‘man of a race that has also struggled for freedom.’ There were rumblings of trouble when a few voices in the galleries started to hoot the Mayor.
‘We are gathered here,’ the Mayor began, ‘to celebrate the greatest triumph of democracy since the fall of the Bastile.’ There were some cheers. ‘America rejoices,’ he said. ‘How could she do otherwise when she sees power in Russia transferred from the few to the many, and in the country where there seemed the least hope of the cause of democracy triumphing.

‘America, the great democracy, is proud tonight because democracy in Russia has supplanted the greatest oligarchy that remained on the face of the earth.’ Then the Mayor stepped back and said:

‘But I submit we have another reason to be proud. It is now inevitable, so far as human foresight can make a prediction, that the United States is to be projected into this world war and—’

‘No! No!’ rolled the chorus from the galleries.
There was quiet for an instant. Then the audience downstairs and in the boxes began to rise and a shout of ‘Yes! Yes!’ answered the galleries.
‘The United States is for peace!’ a voice from the gallery cried, and the tumult started anew. The ushers escorted some of the leaders of the disturbance out of the arena, and when the Mayor got partial order he said:

‘We are to be projected into the war through no fault of ours, but because of conditions which have been thrust upon us—’
‘No! No! No!’ the galleries started again. Some one shouted an epithet at the Mayor, which brought, even from the galleries, shouts of ‘Put him out! Choke him!’

‘And when America does enter the contest,’ shouted the Mayor, ‘it will be to vindicate certain ideas as fundamental as those on which the Republic was builded, and among them will be the cause of democracy throughout the world. Let us be glad that, instead of fighting side by side with autocratic Russia, we shall be fighting side by side with democratic Russia.’

It was at this point that the galleries became so demonstrative that Mr. Mitchel told them they must be Americans or traitors.
‘You are for America or you are against her,’ he said, and here the Mayor made an indirect reference to the accusations he made against Senator Wagner. ‘You are for America or against her, whether in private life or in legislative halls,’ he said.

The Mayor then left the hall, followed by shouts of condemnation and of praise.
When the tumult had died down Rabbi S. S. Wise, a worker for world peace but not an extreme pacifist, was introduced.

‘I feel it is my duty to say one word in support [hisses] and in reply to the Mayor. I would have this great audience know that I believe the Mayor was right—[This brought shouts of ‘No. You’re as bad as he is.’]

‘I am here to talk, and I’m going to talk,’ shouted the Rabbi. ‘If you don’t like what I say, go; I am going to stay. The Mayor is right when he says we are on the verge of war. I pray God it may not come, but if it does the blame will not rest upon us, but upon that German militarism, which may it be given to the German people to overthrow as the Romanoffs have been forever overthrown.

‘God knows we want peace. No man has ever fought and stood for peace as has Woodrow Wilson. [Cheers.] I do not believe that war is absolutely inevitable, but I thank God I am a citizen of a republic that has been patient.

‘I am for peace, I say, but I would to God it were possible for us to fight side by side with the German people for the overthrow of Hohenzollernism.’
Then the rabbi praised the Russian revolution, but he ran into opposition when he said:
‘At the risk of incurring the displeasure of those of you who have such bitter memories I hope that amnesty will be extended to the Czar himself. May God forgive the Czar.’ [Shouts of ‘No, never!’] ‘May God forgive the monarch who never knew what mercy was.’
This was followed by shouts by a man in the gallery.

‘I cannot forget,’ continued the Rabbi, ‘that I am a member and a teacher of a race of which half has lived in the domain of the Czar and as a Jew, I believe that of all the achievements of my people, none has been nobler than that part the sons and daughters of Israel have taken in the great movement which has culminated in the free Russia.’

It was after a review of the struggle of the Russian revolutionists, of whom he has been the leading American writer, that Mr. Kennan told of the work of the Friends of Russian Freedom in the revolution.

He said that during the Japanese-Russian war he was in Tokio, and that he was permitted to make visits among the 12,000 Russian prisoners in Japanese hands at the end of the first year of the war. He told how they had asked him to give them something to read, and he had conceived the idea of putting revolutionary propaganda into the Russian Army.

The Japanese authorities favored it and gave him permission. Later he sent to America for all the Russian revolutionary literature to be had. He said that one day Dr. Nicholas Russell came to him in Tokio, unannounced, and said that he had been sent to help the work.

‘The movement was financed by a New York banker you all know and love,’ he said, referring to Mr. Schiff, ‘and soon we received a ton and a half of Russian revolutionary propaganda. At the end of the war 50,000 Russian officers and men went back to their country ardent revolutionists.

The Friends of Russian Freedom had sowed 50,000 seeds of liberty in 100 Russian regiments. I do not know how many of those officers and men were in the Petrograd fortress last week, but we do know what part the army took in the revolution.’
 
Mr. Parsons then arose and said:
‘I will now read a message from White Sulphur Springs sent by the gentleman to whom Mr. Kennan referred.’ This was the message:

‘Will you say for me to those present at tonight’s meeting how deeply I regret my inability to celebrate with the Friends of Russian Freedom the actual reward of what we had hoped and striven for those long years! I do not for a moment feel that if the Russian people have under their present leaders shown such commendable moderation in this moment of crisis they will fail to give Russia proper government and a constitution which shall permanently assure to the Russian people the happiness and prosperity of which a financial autocracy has so long deprived them.
 
‘JACOB H. SCHIFF’
This message from President Wilson was read:
 
‘The American Ambassador in Petrograd, acting under instructions from this Government, formally recognized the new Government of Russia. By this act the United States has expressed its confidence in the success of and its natural sympathy with popular government. WOODROW WILSON’
Vladimir Resnikoff, the blind Russian baritone, sang a number of folk songs and the Symphony Orchestra, directed by Nikolai Sokoloff played Tschaikowsky’s Symphony No. 4 in F minor and other selections. Miss Lillian D. Wald delivered a eulogy of Mme. Catherine Breshkovskaya, the Russian revolutionist, who had visited this country and who is now in Siberia, to be brought back at the age of 70 years to see in Petrograd the triumph of the cause for which she worked and suffered.
The following resolution was unanimously adopted:
Resolved, That the Mayor of the City of New York be requested to transmit the following cable to Professor Paul N. Milyoukoff, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the new Russian Government:
‘Citizens of New York having at the call of the Society of the Friends of Russian Freedom assembled in mass meeting at Carnegie Hall on this 23d day of March, 1917, extend their congratulations to the Russian people upon the success of the revolution in Russia, and express their admiration for those who in the years gone by and those who in recent days have fought so bravely for liberty.

They convey their earnest wishes for Russia’s complete realization of self-Government, and declare their conviction that it will mean enduring friendship and co-operation between the Governments and peoples of Russia and the United States of America.’
At the close of the meeting the pictures of the revolutionary leaders were shown upon a screen, together with a picture of George Grey Bernard’s statue of Lincoln which is to be placed in Petrograd.
—————-
BREAK UP PACIFIST MEETING
—————-
Police Disperse Crowd Around Auto
of Orators in Wall Street.
The police stopped a pacifist street meeting in the Wall Street district yesterday afternoon after a big crowd had surrounded the speakers and had begun to dispute with them. Benjamin C. Marsh and other pacifist orators had been telling the crowd that the firm of J. P. Morgan & Co. and other financial interests were engineering a ‘go-to-war’ movement. Mr. Marsh spoke from an automobile.
‘I am engaged in a fight against surrendering the Government to Wall Street,’ he said. ‘If the privileged class and their wealth were to be conscripted in case of war there would be no possibility of this country becoming involved.’

‘What are you going to do about the German submarines?’ someone in the crowd asked.
‘I consider it more important to fight against special privileges than to engage in a war against poor, beaten Germany,’ was the reply.
The crowd became unruly, and a police Lieutenant in charge of reserves made them move on before Mr. Marsh had finished speaking.
Dr. David Starr Jordan spoke against war yesterday at a meeting in Horace Mann Auditorium, Broadway and 120th Street, under the auspices of the Collegiate Anti-Militarism League and the Institute of Arts and Sciences.
Dr. Jordan, the Rev. Judah L. Magnes, Morris Hillquit, Arthur Le Soeur, James P. Maurer, and others will speak at a mass meeting of the Emergency Peace Federation in Madison Square Garden tonight. John F. Moors, President of the Boston Associated Charities, yesterday joined the ‘unofficial commission’ which is trying to find ‘a way out’ without war.”
Rabbi Stephen S. Wise had been a member of the “Anti-Militarism Committee” which was formed to combat the “cult of preparedness” that sought “to stampede the nation”. [See: “Starts Open Fight Against Preparedness”, The New York Times, (22 December 1915), p. 12.] He had been opposed to any talk of war, until war became a Jewish cause, until American intervention in the war became “good for the Jews”, even though it remained very bad for America and humanity.
 
The New York Times reported on 30 December 1917 on page 4 in an article entitled “KAHN ASKS ARMY OF 6,000,000 MEN”:
“Jacob H. Schiff said that it now appeared reasonably sure that, at the end of this war, nationalities formerly subject would be freed and that, among them, Palestine would be restored to the Jews. He said that, although there had been much disagreement among the Jews of the world as to what was desirable for their future, they were now nearing an agreement and were preparing for the restoration of the Jewish State. In this situation he said that it was the duty of Jews to inquire into the reason why the Jewish nation had formerly fallen and been shattered, in order that the new Jewish State would stand. He asserted that their loss of country was originally due to their abandonment of their religion, and that a religious revival was the means of insuring the national future.”
 
The Jewish Communal Register of New York City 1917-1918 wrote of Jacob H. Schiff,
 
“Schiff, Jacob Henry, was born in 1847, at Frankfort-on-the-Maine, Germany. He received his education in the schools of Frankfort. In 1865 he came to America, where he settled in New York City. Here, he joined the staff of a banking house. In 1873, he returned to Europe where he made connections with some of the chief German banking houses. Upon returning to the United States, he entered the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb and Company, New York, of which he later became the head. His firm became the financial re-constructors of the Union Pacific Railroad, and since then is strongly interested in American railroads. Mr. Schiff’s principle of ‘community of interests’ among the chief railway combinations led to the formation of the Northern Securities Company, thus suppressing ruinous competition. The firm of Kuhn, Loeb & Co., floated the large Japanese War loans of 1904-05, thus making possible the Japanese victory over Russia. Mr. Schiff is director of numerous financial companies, among them the Central Trust Company, Western Union Telegraph Company, the National State Bank of New York. He is also vice-president of the New York Chamber of Commerce.
 
Mr. Schiff is widely known for his many philanthropic activities and for his interest in education. Of his numerous philanthropies only a few can be mentioned here. He founded the Chair in Social Economics at Columbia University; he presented the fund and the building for Semitic studies at Harvard, he is chairman of the East Asiatic Section of the Museum of Natural History of New York, which has sent out many expiditions for the study of Eastern history and conditions; he made donations to the various museums of the city, and presented the New York Public Library with a large number of works, dealing with Jewish subjects.
 
Mr. Schiff is the Jewish philanthropist par excellence. His philanthropies embrace every phase of the Jewish life. He is intensely interested in hospital work and is the president of the Montefiore Home, and a contributor to Mount Sinai Hospital and all other important Jewish hospitals of the city. He is profoundly interested in Jewish education and took a leading part in the reorganization of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America; he is also the founder of the Bureau of Education. In addition Mr. Schiff is trustee of the Baron de Hirsch Fund and the Woodbine Agricultural School. He has provided the building and funds for the Young Men’s Hebrew Association of New York City.
 
Mr. Schiff has always used his wealth and his influence in the best interests of his people. He financed the enemies of autocratic Russia and used his financial influence to keep Russia from the money market of the United States.
 
When last year, Mr. Schiff celebrated his seventieth birthday, all the factions of Jewry in the United States and elsewhere united in paying tribute to him.”
The Jewish Communal Register of New York City, 1917-1918, Second Edition, Kehillah, New York, (1919), pp. 1009-1010 (In the First Edition at pp. 1018-1019).
Elinor Slater and Robert Slater wrote in their book Great Jewish Men,
“Schiff also served as a director or advisor for many banks, insurance firms, and other companies. He helped float loans to the American government as well as to foreign countries. The most important was the two-hundred-million-dollar bond issue for Japan at the time of the 1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War. Furious with the Russians over their anti-Semitic policies, Schiff called the czarist government ‘the enemy of government.’ He was pleased to support the Japanese in their war effort. He also encouraged an armed revolt against the Czar. When the Japanese won the war, Schiff was presented with the Second Order of the Treasure, becoming the first foreigner to receive an official medal at the imperial palace.
 
In 1910 Schiff was one of several Americans who campaigned to revoke a commercial treaty with the Russians over their mistreatment of Russian Jews. Although the Russians sought him out for loans as well, he was steadfast in his refusals to grant them. Schiff made sure that no one else at Kuhn, Loeb underwrote Russian loans either. He did provide financial support for Russian-Jewish self-defense groups. It was only with the fall of the Czar in 1917 that Schiff dropped his opposition to underwriting the Russian government; he provided some support for the Kerensky government. But, angry at the Russians for refusing to honor the passports of American Jews, he successfully campaigned to abrogate the Russian-American Treaty of 1932. [***] During World War I Schiff and some of his American Jewish peers were assailed by the newer generations of Zionist leaning leaders for their indifference to Zionism. Schiff had indeed been a strong foe of Zionism, believing it a secular, nationalistic perversion of the Jewish faith and incompatible with American citizenship. He gave some funds to agricultural projects in Palestine, however, and by 1916 he had shifted his beliefs to be in favor of Zionist efforts, openly supporting the notion of a cultural homeland for Jews in Palestine.”
—E. Slater and R. Slater, “Jacob Schiff”, Great Jewish Men, Jonathan David Publishers, New York, (2003), pp. 274-276, at 275-276.
Schiff sponsored the rabid Zionist Rabbi Judah Magnes. Schiff funded the Russian Revolution and funded the Japanese against the Russians in their war. Schiff obstructed the Russians’ access to international financing with which to fight the war, feed the Russian people and maintain the Russian economy. Many were amazed by Japan’s ability to defeat mighty Russia.
Schiff initially favored Germany in the First World War. Schiff, like many American Jewish financiers, was born in Germany; and since Germany agreed to work toward the emancipation of Russian Jews and secure Palestine for the Zionists—actions Zionist Israel Zangwill, a British Jew, defended in spirit, while Zangwill concurrently tried to bring America into the war on the side of England. [See:I. Zangwill, “Zangwill Urges Jews to Support Allies”, The London Times, (10 September 1914), frontpage; and “Mr. Schiff on Peace”, The London Times, (25 November 1914), p. 9; and “The Voice of Jerusalem”, The London Times, (2 December 1914), p. 9.]
 
The New York Times, 22 November 1914, Section 5, page SM4, published a long article about, and an interview with, Jacob Schiff together with a large portrait of the man glorifying him as if a visionary of the war to end all wars; which article was entitled, “JACOB H. SCHIFF POINTS A WAY TO EUROPEAN PEACE; He Sets Forth the Disastrous Results to America That Would Follow the Complete Humiliation of Either Germany or England and Believes We Can Do Much to End This War and with It All War.” [See also: “Consequences of the War”, The New York Times, (22 November 1914), Section 3, p. 2; and “See Peace Campaign in Mr. Schiff’s Talk”, The New York Times, (23 November 1914), p. 3.]
The London Times portrayed the The New York Times interview with Schiff as pro-German propaganda on 23 November 1914, on page 8, and note the statement, “their line of attack is to secure a lasting peace”, further note Schiff’s call for a peace conference, long the ambition of the Zionists for it would provide them with the opportunity to petition for the formation of a “Jewish State” in Palestine:
“GERMAN PRESS CAMPAIGN
—————-
ADVANCE ON THE OLD
METHOD.
—————-
MR. JACOB SCHIFF’S VIEWS.
(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
WASHINGTON, Nov. 22.
There are signs that the Germans are again planning to make a bid for American sympathy by peace talk. The New York Times publishes a long interview with Mr. Jacob H. Schiff, one of the leading German-American bankers, and a close friend of the German official representatives in the United States, which shows clearly that their line of attack is to secure a lasting peace.
Mr. Schiff argues that neither the Allies nor Germany should be allowed to score a smashing victory. A complete triumph for the Allies would hand over the world to England and her navies, while ‘in the role of world-conqueror Germany would be a world-dictator and would indulge in a domination which would be almost unbearable to almost every other nation.’ For the United States a complete British triumph would be especially disastrous. Probably the permanence of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance would saddle upon Americans the burden of a defensive militarism. If Germany won, the Monroe doctrine might, among other things, become a scrap of paper. Both England and Germany are patriotically resolved to fight until exhaustion supervenes. That means for Europe a prolonged period of bloodshed and misery. Hence for humanitarian and selfish reasons alike the United States is interested in ending the conflict. The United States should see whether she could not devise some sort of conference at which the belligerents could talk things over. It might perhaps be managed without an armistice.
I believe it to be not beyond the bounds of possibility that if this course could be brought about a way out of this struggle and carnage might be found, and I know I am not alone in this belief. The situation is unprecedented. . . . The peace must not be temporary. It must mark the ending of all war. . . . Towards this end America may help tremendously, and herein lies, it seems to me, the greatest opportunity ever offered to the American Press. Let the newspapers stop futile philosophizing on the merits and demerits of each case. . . . Let them begin stimulating public opinion in favour of rational adjustment of the points at issue. . . . Have we not the right to insist that the interests of neutral nations should be given some consideration by the nations whose great quarrel is harming us incalculably?
 
The moderation of Mr. Schiff’s brief for Germany, his lamentation over the misery of the war, annotated as it is by accounts of suffering Flanders, his appeal to the humanitarian instinct of the American people, to their sympathy with the under-dog, to say nothing of his other points, all show a considerable advance of the Teutonic grasp of the American point of view since the Bernstorff maneuvers at the end of the summer. Even the New York Times, whose grasp of the basis of the issue, I have often pointed out, is particularly clear-visioned, while it thinks the plea is rather premature, hopes that in a few months, should one side or other score decisively enough to snatch from its enemies the hope of ultimate victory, the proposal of a conference might be opportunely pressed. It also expresses what is undoubtedly the general opinion over here, when it says:—
Whatever aims the belligerents in moments of heat and passion may profess, we here in America do not want to see Germany crushed; none of us want to see England crushed, or France or Russia. We have no wish to see any great people crushed. Such a result of the war would be an almost irreparable disaster, and we should share the loss.
 
The lessons of the above are fairly obvious. The peace campaign already launched by enterprising journalists, amiable pacifists, financiers worried by heavy German commitments, and by German propagandists, will sooner or later gain inconvenient strength. No pains must be spared to continue to advertise above-board our conception of the fundamental issues. It must be continually made clear that we are fighting against German militarism and not against the German people; that no peace can be lasting until the present German regime is crushed. Nor, judging from comment current here, is it enough simply to proclaim the fact.
 
Privately, Germans are trying to capitalize what they call the vindictive tone of certain British utterances. They draw attention, for instance, to the indiscriminate abuse of Germans as ‘Huns’ and of the way in which not only the Prussian contingent but the Bavarians, Wurtemburgers, &c., are bespattered with sneers. If, argue the German propagandists, such things really represent British opinion, how much reliance can be placed on British protestations that Prussian militarism is the only enemy? Does it not rather seem that Great Britain is embarked on a jealous crusade to crush utterly its dangerous rivals in the race for world supremacy?
 
*Mr. Jacob Henry Schiff, whose views are given above, is a native of Frankfurt-on-Main, where he was educated. He went to the United States in 1865 at the age of 18 and settled in New York. He is a member of the banking firm of Kuhn, Loeb, and Co., of which his son, Mortimer Schiff, is a partner.”
Zionist spokesman Israel Zangwill, who was British but felt no loyalty to Great Britain because his only loyalty was to his fellow Jewish Zionists and their money—Zangwill ran to Schiff’s defense. Schiff proposed that the First World War be the war to end all wars, which became an international mantra after the war. The absolute end of all war heralded the Jewish Messianic Era in which the Jews would be “restored” to Palestine, where they would rule the world from Jerusalem. Jewish bankers deliberately created the First World War in order to artificially fulfill Jewish Messianic prophecy by staging the “Battle of Armageddon”, by creating a World government run by Jews known as “The League of Nations”, by “restoring” the Jews to Palestine, by destroying the Empires and Monarchies, by enslaving the Gentiles with Bolshevism, by placing the wealth of the World in Jewish hands, etc. etc. etc. Schiff believed that the First World War fulfilled the prophecy of Isaiah 2:1-4, which states,
“1 The word that Isaiah the son of Amoz saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem. 2 And it shall come to pass in the last days, that the mountain of the LORD’s house shall be established in the top of the mountains, and shall be exalted above the hills; and all nations shall flow unto it. 3 And many people shall go and say, Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the LORD, to the house of the God of Jacob; and he will teach us of his ways, and we will walk in his paths: for out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the LORD from Jerusalem. 4 And he shall judge among the nations, and shall rebuke many people: and they shall beat their swords into plowshares, and their spears into pruninghooks: nation shall not lift up sword against nation, neither shall they learn war anymore.”
 
The London Times printed a letter from racist Jewish Zionist Israel Zangwill (a man who had earlier asserted that the mixture of Jewish genes with Russian Slavic genes resulted in the horrible degradation of the Jewish race), where Zangwill stated on 25 November 1914 on page 9,
“MR. SCHIFF ON PEACE.
—————-
TO THE EDITOR OF THE TIMES.
Sir,—The interview with Mr. Jacob Schiff reported by your Washington Correspondent—the proposal for a permanent peace that shall end not only this war, but war—comes as the one gleam of light in the world’s darkness. But why almost extinguish it under the head of ‘German Press Campaign’? And why does he speak of Mr. Schiff’s ‘brief for Germany’? As one associated for many years in philanthropic work with this noblest of millionaires, I should like to testify that, despite his early associations with Germany, he is one of the most patriotic Americans I have ever known. Descended from a long line of Jewish Rabbis and scholars—one of his ancestors was Chief Rabbi of the Great Synagogue, London, in the 18th century—Mr. Jacob Schiff might himself have sat to Lessing for the portrait of ‘Nathan der Weise,’ and in proposing a conference to end Prussian militarism—and every other—he speaks not as the mouthpiece of Berlin, but with the voice of Jerusalem.
Yours faithfully,
Israel Zangwill
Jewish Territorial Organization, King’s-chambers, Portugal-street,
Nov. 23.”
Zangwill was indeed familiar with Schiff’s “philanthropy”. Zangwill mentioned Schiff’s involvement in the war between Russia and Japan in 1911,
“[. . .]Mr. Jacob Schiff financing the Japanese war against Russia and building up the American Jewry[.]”
I. Zangwill, The Problem of the Jewish Race, Judean Publishing Company, New York, (1914), on page 14; which was first published as an article, “The Jewish Race”, The Independent, Volume 71, Number 3271, (10 August 1911), pp. 288-295, at 292.
Schiff provided approximately $20,000,000.00USD (non-adjusted) for the Russian Revolution. [See: C. Knickerbocker, New York Journal-American, (3 February 1949). A. de Goulevitch, Czarism and Revolution, Omni Publications, Hawthorne, California, (1962), pp. 223-232. W. C. Skousen, The Naked Capitalist: A Review and Commentary on Dr. Carroll Quigley’s Book: Tragedy and Hope, a History of the World in Our Time, Reviewer, Salt Lake City, (1971). J. Perloff, The Shadows of Power: The Council on Foreign Relations and the American Decline, Western Islands, Boston, (1988), p. 39. G. E. Griffin, The Creature from Jekyll Island: A Second Look at the Federal Reserve, American Opinion, Appleton, Wisconsin, (1995). p. 265.]
Jacob Schiff’s “philanthropy” ultimately cost the lives of tens of millions of Russians and subjected hundreds of millions more to Jewish repression which has yet to subside. At the time Schiff wrecked Russia, Russia was in the Allied forces opposed to Germany. The Zionist Jewish bankers not only brought America into the war against our interests, they destroyed an ally in that war against Germany, thereby further harming American interests.
The Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 14 RED-SL, Encyclopaedia Judaica, Jerusalem, The Macmillan Company, New York, (1971), cols. 960-962, at 961, states,
“Schiff was prominently involved in floating loans to the government at home and to foreign nations, the most spectacular being a bond issue of $200,000,000 for Japan at the time of the Russo-Japanese War in 1904-05. Deeply angered by the anti-Semitic policies of the czarist regime in Russia, he was delighted to support the Japanese war effort. He consistently refused to participate in loans on behalf of Russia, and used his influence to prevent other firms from underwriting Russian loans, while providing financial support for Russian Jewish *self-defense groups. Schiff carried this policy into World War I, relenting only after the fall of czarism in 1917. At that time, he undertook to support the Kerensky government with a substantial loan.”
The “anti-Semitic policies of the czarist regime in Russia” were the prohibition of racist Zionism, which the Czar prohibited because the Czar asked the Jews to integrate not segregate. The racism was Jewish, not Russian. The Czar and his predecessors wanted Jews in Russia to become Russian and assimilate. In the minds of the racist Zionists, that was an extermination campaign against the “Jewish race”. Yet, these racist Jews used their control over the press to misrepresent the situation and make it appear that the Czar was racist.
The Czar was also confronted with murderous Jewish revolutionaries and Jewish led strikes that crippled the Russian economy and caused the Russian people to suffer and starve. But then, as now, Jews largely controlled the media and so Jews were able to blame the Czar for the wrongs Jews had done, and for the racist segregationism Jews had insisted upon. In the Jewish media, the Czar became a racist for opposing Jewish racism and an enemy of the Russian People for trying to rescue them from the Jews who were out to destroy the Russian People.
Kerensky immediately emancipated the Jews after the Russian Revolution of 1917, so that Jews could take over the government, educational institutions, the press and other institutions of influence throughout the Russian Empire. Lenin made “anti-Semitism” an offense punishable by death, and thereby shielded all Jews from any criticism or accusation. [See: V. I. Lenin, “Anti-Jewish Pogroms”, Collected Works, Volume 29, English translation of the Fourth Russian Edition, Progress Publishers, Moscow, (1972), pp. 252-253. See also: D. Fahey, The Mystical Body of Christ in the Modern World, Browne and Nolan Limited, London, (1935), p. 251. See also: G. B. Shaw, The Jewish Guardian, (1931). See also: Congress Bulletin, American Jewish Congress, New York, (5 January 1940). See also: The Jewish Voice, (January, 1942). See also: G. Aronson, Soviet Russia and the Jews, American Jewish League against Communism, New York, (1949). See also: J. Stalin, “Anti-Semitism: Reply to an Inquiry of the Jewish News Agency in the United States” (12 January 1931), Works, Volume 13, Foreign Languages Publishing House, Moscow, (1955), p. 30. See also: S. S. Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Star, Vintage, New York, (2003), pp. 305-306. See also: “Anti-Semitism”, Great Soviet Encyclopedia: A Translation of the Third Edition, Volume 2, (1973), pp. 175-177, at 176. See also: “Jews”, Great Soviet Encyclopedia: A Translation of the Third Edition, Volume 9, Macmillan, New York, (1975), pp. 292-293, at 293. See also: N. S. Alent’eva, Editor, Tseli i metody voinstvuiushchego sionizma, Izd-vo polit. lit-ry, Moskva, (1971).  Н. С. Алентьева, Редактор, Цели и методы воинствующего сионизма, Издательство
Политической Литературы, Москва, (1971).
Behind this protective shield, Jews then mass murdered educated Gentiles, and elevated Jews into positions of power and influence. Crypto-Jews in the government changed their names to Russian-sounding names. It was a crime punishable by death to reveal their true Jewish identity.
Prominent Jews had long advocated the use of tyrants following revolutions. The Bolshevik Jews Schiff put into power after Kerensky, who had failed to rule with an iron scepter—the Jewish Bolsheviks mass murdered millions of Russian Christians, destroyed Russian Orthodox Churches while leaving synagogues intact, and pillaged, plundered and destroyed Russia for most of the Twentieth Century.
Those many Jews who hated Russians had their revenge. Russian culture was largely destroyed in the process. Irreparable harm was done to the Russian people as a result of the mass murder of their best people and the introduction of carcinogens into their living environment. The famines and unemployment that the Jews blamed on the Czar, so as to cause the unrest which broke out in 1905, were instead due to Schiff and his Jewish financier friends. After Schiff’s puppets came to power, they plundered Russia’s vast wealth and sent it back to the Jewish financiers, a process which continues to this very day. Such was the Jewish banker Jacob H. Schiff’s “philanthropy”.
There are many lessons to be learned from the story of how the Jewish bankers destroyed Russia. They used their control over the press to defame Russia and its leaders. They made Americans anti-Russian. In America, they made it illegal to speak out against the war and imprisoned those who did.
Ominously, we again see the Jewish controlled press defaming Russia and its leaders. We again see Jewish bankers promising and funding revolution. We again see Jews in Russia attempting to stir up disorder and chaos, which they blame on the Government. Was not the Twentieth Century slavery of the Slavs revenge enough to satisfy the racist Zionists? Was not the blood of tens of millions of innocent Russians enough to quench the thirst of these vampires, or must they again tear open the throat of Mother Russia and rip out the unborn children from her womb?
Russia is not the only country which World Jewry seeks to ruin with “revolution”. If Jacob H. Schiff were alive today, he would probably want to join the “Ron Paul Revolution”. Ron Paul’s Rothschild goldbuggery and Ayn Rand selfishness are the products of the Rothschild plan for World domination. Ron Paul is the pitchman for these corrosive and subversive ideas and policies.
THE JEWISH BOLSHEVIK COMMUNIST REVOLUTION
AND ITS GRIM LEGACY
INTRODUCTION:
THE HOST AND THE PARASITE
ENTOMOLOGY
Subversion Among the Ants
The U.S. South knows few worse pests than the tiny fire ant, an uninvited guest that came up from South America nearly 50 years ago and settled down for a long visit. The little insects bite people, raising painful lumps, attack livestock, nibble crops and foul up expensive farm machinery with their hard earthen nest mounds. For years nothing could check their spread: massive attacks with chemical dusts and sprays all failed. Now it looks as if the Department of Agriculture has finally found an answer to the curse of the fire ants: still smaller ants that seduce the fire ants into destroying themselves.
Social Parasite.
Uruguayan scientists working for the department stumbled on the secret while they were searching for a fungus or a bacteria that might be fatal to fire ants. They discovered that in Uruguay, where the ants are native, they are no serious problem. Often they are so weak that they build flimsy nest mounds, which wash away in the rain. This suggested not an ant killer but a social parasite.
The nests contained various parasites, but the most important turned out to be another species of ants that live without concealment in the fortresses of the fierce fire ants and, by some mysterious influence, make their hosts support them in idle luxury. Usually, a few of the parasites cling to the fire ant queen by means of specially adapted mandibles that fit around her neck without hurting her. When a worker comes to feed her with regurgitated food, the parasites flutter their antennae, apparently conveying a compelling message that makes the worker feed the parasites instead of the queen.
The parasites that cling to the queen are females, and when she lays her eggs they lay eggs of their own. Dutifully, the fire ant workers care for both sets of eggs and raise the infant parasites just as tenderly as if they were young of their own species. The parasites thrive while their considerate hosts all but work themselves to death taking care of them. The fire ant economy is wrecked. The healthy parasites mate conveniently in the nest, and then fly away to subvert and weaken other fire ant colonies.
Biological Weapon.
The parasites have been found only in association with fire ants. Apparently, they cannot live except when fed by the fire ants with their regurgitations. This dependence makes them promising as a potent biological weapon.
TIME, JUNE 11, 1965
THE BIOLOGY OF THE JEWISH PROBLEM
The most depressing thing about the impending disaster facing Western civilization is the almost total lack of resistance on the part of those who will be the victims of the disaster. The men and women of the West, as if entranced or under the influence of some mind-numbing drug, not only are not doing anything to avert the cataclysm which lies ahead, but they are positively falling over themselves to aid and assist the engineers of that cataclysm in bringing it about. The murderer asks us for a knife with which to slit our throats and the throats of our children, and we hand him one with alacrity and enthusiasm, apologizing for not having done so sooner.
Ours is a situation which is so bizarre – so nightmarish – that it seems almost unreal. One must continually fight off the impulse tell oneself,
“This can’t really be happening!”
 It may be helpful in coming to grips with our all-too real nightmare, therefore, to note that our situation, bizarre as it is, is not unique. There is a strikingly close parallel in the insect world.
The tiny but troublesome fire ant, native to South America but now beginning to become entrenched in wide areas of the southern United States as well, apparently has its own form of the Jewish problem! A fascinating report on the subject, bearing the utterly appropriate title “Subversion Among the Ants,” was published TIME magazine recently recalled to mind.
According to the report, scientists noted that in South America the fire ants were much less a problem for farmers than in the United States. Some unknown malady seemed to have robbed them of their natural fierceness, aggressiveness, and industriousness; in other words, the fire-ant “civilization” in South America had become terminally decadent.
When the scientists investigated further they traced the source of the fire-ant decadence to a social parasite –
“another species of ants that live without concealment in the fortresses of the fierce fire ants and, by some mysterious influence, make their hosts support them in idle luxury.”
And what is this “mysterious influence,” this fire-ant liberalism, which blunts their xenophobic instinct and makes them tolerate the alien parasites in their midst? The scientists don’t know, but they say it is transmitted from the parasites to the hard-working fire ants by a fluttering of the parasites’ antennae,
“apparently conveying a compelling message that makes the worker feed the parasites.”
Shades of Jewish TV and Jewish controlled Internet!
So the ant-parasites do it with antennae too! But the message the media masters convey to us through our TV antennae compels us to do far more than feed their bloodsucking tribe. It robs us of memory of the past and concern for the future. It perverts all healthy instincts. It turns racial pride into sick guilt. It undermines racial solidarity and gives us in its place self-hatred. It makes us abandon our own natural interests and serve instead the interests of the alien parasites and all the racial dregs of the globe.
In other words, just as in the case of the ants, it seduces us into destroying ourselves.
Making the analogy more nearly perfect, we note that, according to the scientists, the parasites which wreck the fire-ant economy while fattening themselves “cannot live except when fed by the fire ants.” No more than Jews can live without their Gentile prey to feed on, for they are incomplete creatures, specially adapted by Nature to their parasitic role.
Thus, one never sees a Jewish bricklayer or a Jewish pipefitter, a Jewish lumberjack or a Jewish dirt farmer. Jews do not create – they consume; they manipulate; they buy and sell; they pander; they peddle pills; they mimic; they scheme and shuffle their papers; they sit in their offices and give advice (for a price); they advertise; they strut and prate before the TV cameras (their TV cameras); they scribble lies for the newspapers; they flood our libraries and our bookstores with worthless or poisonous books (which we foolishly praise to the skies); they sicken our children’s minds in the schools; they whisper advice into the ears of our politicians; they incite riots and lead demonstrations for “equality”; they judge us in our courts; they reveal our military secrets to our enemies; they own; they rent; they lend; they undermine; they subvert; they destroy.
But they do not, they will not, they cannot feed and house and clothe themselves through their own labor. Nowhere is this more apparent than in the Jewish state of Israel itself, the very land of which was stolen from another people and which exists only through the wealth extorted from others, principally in Germany and the United States.
And if there is any value for us in the observation of this amazing parallel between the fire ants and ourselves it is this: we can see that perhaps our problem is more than a political or a social or an economic problem; perhaps it is, more than anything else, a biological problem.
If the Jews do as they do not through choice but because their inborn nature compels them, and if we respond to them for the same reason – just as the fire ants respond to the “Jewish” ants among them – then our problem assumes an altogether new and different aspect.
If our problem is essentially biological, then realizing this fact should not make us despair of finding a solution. On the contrary, what the Creator has done the Creator can undo. Our race, as the cutting edge of the Creator’s tool, can overcome all things and surpass all things, in time. But first must come understanding; first must come consciousness.
THE JEWISH BOLSHEVIKS SLAUGHTER THE CHRISTIAN TZAR AND HIS FAMILY
In the night of July 16-17, 1918, a squad of Bolshevik secret police murdered Russia’s last emperor, Tsar Nicholas II, along with his wife, Tsaritsa Alexandra, their 14-year-old son, Tsarevich Alexis, and their four daughters. They were cut down in a hail of gunfire in a half-cellar room of the house in Ekaterinburg, a city in the Ural mountain region, where they were being held prisoner. The daughters were finished off with bayonets. To prevent a cult for the dead Tsar, the bodies were carted away to the countryside and hastily buried in a secret grave.
Bolshevik authorities at first reported that the Romanov emperor had been shot after the discovery of a plot to liberate him. For some time the deaths of the Empress and the children were kept secret. Soviet historians claimed for many years that local Bolsheviks had acted on their own in carrying out the killings, and that Lenin, founder of the Soviet state, had nothing to do with the crime.
In 1990, Moscow playwright and historian Edvard Radzinsky announced the result of his detailed investigation into the murders. He unearthed the reminiscences of Lenin’s bodyguard, Alexei Akimov, who recounted how he personally delivered Lenin’s execution order to the telegraph office. The telegram was also signed by Soviet government chief Yakov Sverdlov. Akimov had saved the original telegraph tape as a record of the secret order.1
Radzinsky’s research confirmed what earlier evidence had already indicated. Leon Trotsky — one of Lenin’s closest colleagues — had revealed years earlier that Lenin and Sverdlov had together made the decision to put the Tsar and his family to death. Recalling a conversation in 1918, Trotsky wrote:2
My next visit to Moscow took place after the [temporary] fall of Ekaterinburg [to anti-Communist forces]. Speaking with Sverdlov, I asked in passing: “Oh yes, and where is the Tsar?”
“Finished,” he replied. “He has been shot.”
“And where is the family?”
“The family along with him.”
“All of them?,” I asked, apparently with a trace of surprise.
“All of them,” replied Sverdlov. “What about it?” He was waiting to see my reaction. I made no reply.
“And who made the decision?,” I asked.
“We decided it here. Ilyich [Lenin] believed that we shouldn’t leave the Whites a live banner to rally around, especially under the present difficult circumstances.”
I asked no further questions and considered the matter closed.
Recent research and investigation by Radzinsky and others also corroborates the account provided years earlier by Robert Wilton, correspondent of the London Times in Russia for 17 years. His account, The Last Days of the Romanovs – originally published in 1920, and reissued in 1993 by the Institute for Historical Review — is based in large part on the findings of a detailed investigation carried out in 1919 by Nikolai Sokolov under the authority of “White” (anti-Communist) leader Alexander Kolchak. Wilton’s book remains one of the most accurate and complete accounts of the murder of Russia’s imperial family.3
A solid understanding of history has long been the best guide to comprehending the present and anticipating the future. Accordingly, people are most interested in historical questions during times of crisis, when the future seems most uncertain. With the collapse of Communist rule in the Soviet Union, 1989-1991, and as Russians struggle to build a new order on the ruins of the old, historical issues have become very topical.
For example, many ask: How did the Bolsheviks, a small movement guided by the teachings of German-Jewish social philosopher Karl Marx, succeed in taking control of Russia and imposing a cruel and despotic regime on its people?
In recent years, Jews around the world have been voicing anxious concern over the specter of anti-Semitism in the lands of the former Soviet Union. In this new and uncertain era, we are told, suppressed feelings of hatred and rage against Jews are once again being expressed. According to one public opinion survey conducted in 1991, for example, most Russians wanted all Jews to leave the country.4 But precisely why is anti-Jewish sentiment so widespread among the peoples of the former Soviet Union? Why do so many Russians, Ukrainians, Lithuanians and others blame “the Jews” for so much misfortune?
A TABOO SUBJECT
Although officially Jews have never made up more than five percent of the country’s total population,5 they played a highly disproportionate and probably decisive role in the infant Bolshevik regime, effectively dominating the Soviet government during its early years. Soviet historians, along with most of their colleagues in the West, for decades preferred to ignore this subject. The facts, though, cannot be denied.
With the notable exception of Lenin (Vladimir Ulyanov), most of the leading Communists who took control of Russia in 1917-20 were Jews. Leon Trotsky (Lev Bronstein) headed the Red Army and, for a time, was chief of Soviet foreign affairs. Yakov Sverdlov (Solomon) was both the Bolshevik party’s executive secretary and — as chairman of the Central Executive Committee — head of the Soviet government. Grigori Zinoviev (Radomyslsky) headed the Communist International (Comintern), the central agency for spreading revolution in foreign countries. Other prominent Jews included press commissar Karl Radek (Sobelsohn), foreign affairs commissar Maxim Litvinov (Wallach), Lev Kamenev (Rosenfeld) and Moisei Uritsky.6
Lenin himself was of mostly Russian and Kalmuck ancestry, but he was also one-quarter Jewish. His maternal grandfather, Israel (Alexander) Blank, was a Ukrainian Jew who was later baptized into the Russian Orthodox Church.7
A thorough-going internationalist, Lenin viewed ethnic or cultural loyalties with contempt. He had little regard for his own countrymen. “An intelligent Russian,” he once remarked, “is almost always a Jew or someone with Jewish blood in his veins.”8
CRITICAL MEETINGS
In the Communist seizure of power in Russia, the Jewish role was probably critical.
Two weeks prior to the Bolshevik “October Revolution” of 1917, Lenin convened a top secret meeting in St. Petersburg (Petrograd) at which the key leaders of the Bolshevik party’s Central Committee made the fateful decision to seize power in a violent takeover. Of the twelve persons who took part in this decisive gathering, there were four Russians (including Lenin), one Georgian (Stalin), one Pole (Dzerzhinsky), and six Jews.9
To direct the takeover, a seven-man “Political Bureau” was chosen. It consisted of two Russians (Lenin and Bubnov), one Georgian (Stalin), and four Jews (Trotsky, Sokolnikov, Zinoviev, and Kamenev).10 Meanwhile, the Petersburg (Petrograd) Soviet — whose chairman was Trotsky — established an 18-member “Military Revolutionary Committee” to actually carry out the seizure of power. It included eight (or nine) Russians, one Ukrainian, one Pole, one Caucasian, and six Jews.11 Finally, to supervise the organization of the uprising, the Bolshevik Central Committee established a five-man “Revolutionary Military Center” as the Party’s operations command. It consisted of one Russian (Bubnov), one Georgian (Stalin), one Pole (Dzerzhinsky), and two Jews (Sverdlov and Uritsky).12
CONTEMPORARY VOICES OF WARNING
Well-informed observers, both inside and outside of Russia, took note at the time of the crucial Jewish role in Bolshevism. Winston Churchill, for one, warned in an article published in the February 8, 1920, issue of the London Illustrated Sunday Herald that Bolshevism is a:
 “worldwide conspiracy for the overthrow of civilization and for the reconstitution of society on the basis of arrested development, of envious malevolence, and impossible equality.”
The eminent British political leader and historian went on to write:13
There is no need to exaggerate the part played in the creation of Bolshevism and in the actual bringing about of the Russian Revolution by these international and for the most part atheistical Jews. It is certainly a very great one; it probably outweighs all others. With the notable exception of Lenin, the majority of the leading figures are Jews. Moreover, the principal inspiration and driving power comes from the Jewish leaders. Thus Tchitcherin, a pure Russian, is eclipsed by his nominal subordinate, Litvinoff, and the influence of Russians like Bukharin or Lunacharski cannot be compared with the power of Trotsky, or of Zinovieff, the Dictator of the Red Citadel (Petrograd), or of Krassin or Radek — all Jews. In the Soviet institutions the predominance of Jews is even more astonishing. And the prominent, if not indeed the principal, part in the system of terrorism applied by the Extraordinary Commissions for Combatting Counter-Revolution [the Cheka] has been taken by Jews, and in some notable cases by Jewesses.
Needless to say, the most intense passions of revenge have been excited in the breasts of the Russian people.
David R. Francis, United States ambassador in Russia, warned in a January 1918 dispatch to Washington:
 
“The Bolshevik leaders here, most of whom are Jews and 90 percent of whom are returned exiles, care little for Russia or any other country but are internationalists and they are trying to start a worldwide social revolution.”14
The Netherlands’ ambassador in Russia, Oudendyke, made much the same point a few months later:
“Unless Bolshevism is nipped in the bud immediately, it is bound to spread in one form or another over Europe and the whole world as it is organized and worked by Jews who have no nationality, and whose one object is to destroy for their own ends the existing order of things.”15
“The Bolshevik Revolution,” declared a leading American Jewish community paper in 1920, “was largely the product of Jewish thinking, Jewish discontent, Jewish effort to reconstruct.”16
As an expression of its radically anti-nationalist character, the fledgling Soviet government issued a decree a few months after taking power that made anti-Semitism a crime in Russia. The new Communist regime thus became the first in the world to severely punish all expressions of anti-Jewish sentiment.17 Soviet officials apparently regarded such measures as indispensable. Based on careful observation during a lengthy stay in Russia, American-Jewish scholar Frank Golder reported in 1925 that:
 “because so many of the Soviet leaders are Jews anti-Semitism is gaining [in Russia], particularly in the army [and] among the old and new intelligentsia who are being crowded for positions by the sons of Israel.”18
HISTORIANS’ VIEWS
Summing up the situation at that time, Israeli historian Louis Rapoport writes:19
Immediately after the [Bolshevik] Revolution, many Jews were euphoric over their high representation in the new government. Lenin’s first Politburo was dominated by men of Jewish origins.
Under Lenin, Jews became involved in all aspects of the Revolution, including its dirtiest work. Despite the Communists’ vows to eradicate anti-Semitism, it spread rapidly after the Revolution — partly because of the prominence of so many Jews in the Soviet administration, as well as in the traumatic, inhuman Sovietization drives that followed. Historian Salo Baron has noted that an immensely disproportionate number of Jews joined the new Bolshevik secret police, the Cheka And many of those who fell afoul of the Cheka would be shot by Jewish investigators.
The collective leadership that emerged in Lenin’s dying days was headed by the Jew Zinoviev, a loquacious, mean-spirited, curly-haired Adonis whose vanity knew no bounds.
“Anyone who had the misfortune to fall into the hands of the Cheka,” wrote Jewish historian Leonard Schapiro, “stood a very good chance of finding himself confronted with, and possibly shot by, a Jewish investigator.”20
In Ukraine, “Jews made up nearly 80 percent of the rank-and-file Cheka agents,” reports W. Bruce Lincoln, an American professor of Russian history.21 (Beginning as the Cheka, or Vecheka) the Soviet secret police was later known as the GPU, OGPU, NKVD, MVD and KGB.)
In light of all this, it should not be surprising that Yakov M. Yurovksy, the leader of the Bolshevik squad that carried out the murder of the Tsar and his family, was Jewish, as was Sverdlov, the Soviet chief who co-signed Lenin’s execution order.22
Igor Shafarevich, a Russian mathematician of world stature, has sharply criticized the Jewish role in bringing down the Romanov monarchy and establishing Communist rule in his country. Shafarevich was a leading dissident during the final decades of Soviet rule. A prominent human rights activist, he was a founding member of the Committee on the Defense of Human Rights in the USSR.
In Russophobia, a book written ten years before the collapse of Communist rule, he noted that Jews were “amazingly” numerous among the personnel of the Bolshevik secret police. The characteristic Jewishness of the Bolshevik executioners, Shafarevich went on, is most conspicuous in the execution of Nicholas II: 23
This ritual action symbolized the end of centuries of Russian history, so that it can be compared only to the execution of Charles I in England or Louis XVI in France. It would seem that representatives of an insignificant ethnic minority should keep as far as possible from this painful action, which would reverberate in all history. Yet what names do we meet? The execution was personally overseen by Yakov Yurovsky who shot the Tsar; the president of the local Soviet was Beloborodov (Vaisbart); the person responsible for the general administration in Ekaterinburg was Shaya Goloshchekin. To round out the picture, on the wall of the room where the execution took place was a distich from a poem by Heine (written in German) about King Balthazar, who offended Jehovah and was killed for the offense.
In his 1920 book, British veteran journalist Robert Wilton offered a similarly harsh assessment:24
The whole record of Bolshevism in Russia is indelibly impressed with the stamp of alien invasion. The murder of the Tsar, deliberately planned by the Jew Sverdlov (who came to Russia as a paid agent of Germany) and carried out by the Jews Goloshchekin, Syromolotov, Safarov, Voikov and Yurovsky, is the act not of the Russian people, but of this hostile invader.
In the struggle for power that followed Lenin’s death in 1924, Stalin emerged victorious over his rivals, eventually succeeding in putting to death nearly every one of the most prominent early Bolsheviks leaders – including Trotsky, Zinoviev, Radek, and Kamenev. With the passage of time, and particularly after 1928, the Jewish role in the top leadership of the Soviet state and its Communist party diminished markedly.
PUT TO DEATH WITHOUT A TRIAL
For a few months after taking power, Bolshevik leaders considered bringing “Nicholas Romanov” before a “Revolutionary Tribunal” that would publicize his “crimes against the people” before sentencing him to death. Historical precedent existed for this. Two European monarchs had lost their lives as a consequence of revolutionary upheaval:
England’s Charles I was beheaded in 1649, and France’s Louis XVI was guillotined in 1793. {With Jews in the background}
In these cases, the king was put to death after a lengthy public trial, during which he was allowed to present arguments in his defense.
Nicholas II, though, was neither charged nor tried. He was secretly put to death – along with his family and staff — in the dead of night, in an act that resembled more a gangster-style massacre than a formal execution.
Why did Lenin and Sverdlov abandon plans for a show trial of the former Tsar? In Wilton’s view, Nicholas and his family were murdered because the Bolshevik rulers knew quite well that they lacked genuine popular support, and rightly feared that the Russian people would never approve killing the Tsar, regardless of pretexts and legalistic formalities.
For his part, Trotsky defended the massacre as a useful and even necessary measure. He wrote:25
The decision [to kill the imperial family] was not only expedient but necessary. The severity of this punishment showed everyone that we would continue to fight on mercilessly, stopping at nothing. The execution of the Tsar’s family was needed not only in order to frighten, horrify, and instill a sense of hopelessness in the enemy but also to shake up our own ranks, to show that there was no turning back, that ahead lay either total victory or total doom. This Lenin sensed well.
HISTORICAL CONTEXT
In the years leading up to the 1917 revolution, Jews were disproportionately represented in all of Russia’s subversive leftist parties.26 Jewish hatred of the Tsarist regime had a basis in objective conditions. Of the leading European powers of the day, imperial Russia was the most institutionally conservative and anti-Jewish. For example, Jews were normally not permitted to reside outside a large area in the west of the Empire known as the “Pale of Settlement.”27
However understandable, and perhaps even defensible, Jewish hostility toward the imperial regime may have been, the remarkable Jewish role in the vastly more despotic Soviet regime is less easy to justify. In a recently published book about the Jews in Russia during the 20th century, Russian-born Jewish writer Sonya Margolina goes so far as to call the Jewish role in supporting the Bolshevik regime the “historic sin of the Jews.”28 She points, for example, to the prominent role of Jews as commandants of Soviet Gulag concentration and labor camps, and the role of Jewish Communists in the systematic destruction of Russian churches. Moreover, she goes on,
“The Jews of the entire world supported Soviet power, and remained silent in the face of any criticism from the opposition.”
In light of this record, Margolina offers a grim prediction:
“The exaggeratedly enthusiastic participation of the Jewish Bolsheviks in the subjugation and destruction of Russia is a sin that will be avenged Soviet power will be equated with Jewish power, and the furious hatred against the Bolsheviks will become hatred against Jews.
If the past is any indication, it is unlikely that many Russians will seek the revenge that Margolina prophecies. Anyway, to blame “the Jews” for the horrors of Communism seems no more justifiable than to blame “white people” for Negro slavery, or “the Germans” for the Second World War or “the Holocaust.”
WORDS OF GRIM PORTENT
Nicholas and his family are only the best known of countless victims of a regime that openly proclaimed its ruthless purpose. A few weeks after the Ekaterinburg massacre, the newspaper of the fledgling Trotsky lead Red Army declared:29
Without mercy, without sparing, we will kill our enemies by the scores of hundreds, let them be thousands, let them drown themselves in their own blood. For the blood of Lenin and Uritskii let there be floods of blood of the bourgeoisie — more blood, as much as possible.
Grigori Zinoviev, speaking at a meeting of Communists in September 1918, effectively pronounced a death sentence on ten million human beings:
“We must carry along with us 90 million out of the 100 million of Soviet Russia’s inhabitants. As for the rest, we have nothing to say to them. They must be annihilated.”30
‘THE 20,000,000’
As it turned out, the Soviet toll in human lives and suffering proved to be much higher than Zinoviev’s murderous rhetoric suggested. Rarely, if ever, has a regime taken the lives of so many of its own people.31
Citing newly-available Soviet KGB documents, historian Dmitri Volkogonov, head of a special Russian parliamentary commission, recently concluded that “from 1929 to 1952, 21.5 000,000 [Soviet] people were repressed. Of these a third were shot, the rest sentenced to imprisonment, where many also died.”32
Olga Shatunovskaya, a member of the Soviet Commission of Party Control, and head of a special commission during the 1960s appointed by Premier Khrushchev, has similarly concluded:
 
“From January 1, 1935 to June 22, 1941, 19,840,000 enemies of the people were arrested. Of these, seven million were shot in prison, and a majority of the others died in camp.”
 
These figures were also found in the papers of Politburo member Anastas Mikoyan.33
Robert Conquest, the distinguished specialist of Soviet history, recently summed up the grim record of Soviet “repression” of it own people:34
“It is hard to avoid the conclusion that the post-1934 death toll was well over 10,000,000. To this should be added the victims of the 1930-1933 famine, the kulak deportations, and other anti-peasant campaigns, amounting to another 10,000,000 plus. The total is thus in the range of what the Russians now refer to as ‘The Twenty Million’.”
A few other scholars have given significantly higher estimates.35
THE TSARIST ERA IN RETROSPECT
With the dramatic collapse of Soviet rule, many Russians are taking a new and more respectful look at their country’s pre-Communist history, including the era of the last Romanov emperor. While the Soviets — along with many in the West — have stereotypically portrayed this era as little more than an age of arbitrary despotism, cruel suppression and mass poverty, the reality is rather different. While it is true that the power of the Tsar was absolute, that only a small minority had any significant political voice, and that the mass of the empire’s citizens were peasants, it is worth noting that Russians during the reign of Nicholas II had freedom of press, religion, assembly and association, protection of private property, and free labor unions. Sworn enemies of the regime, such as Lenin, were treated with remarkable leniency.36
During the decades prior to the outbreak of the First World War, the Russian economy was booming. In fact, between 1890 and 1913, it was the fastest growing in the world. New rail lines were opened at an annual rate double that of the Soviet years. Between 1900 and 1913, iron production increased by 58%, while coal production more than doubled.37
Exported Russian grain fed all of Europe. Finally, the last decades of Tsarist Russia witnessed a magnificent flowering of cultural life.
Everything changed with the First World War, a catastrophe not only for Russia, but for the entire West.
MONARCHIST SENTIMENT
In spite of (or perhaps because of) the relentless official campaign during the entire Soviet era to stamp out every uncritical memory of the Romanovs and imperial Russia, a virtual cult of popular veneration for Nicholas II has been sweeping Russia in recent years.
People have been eagerly paying the equivalent of several hours’ wages to purchase portraits of Nicholas from street vendors in Moscow, St. Petersburg and other Russian cities. His portrait now hangs in countless Russian homes and apartments. In late 1990, all 200,000 copies of a first printing of a 30-page pamphlet on the Romanovs quickly sold out. Said one street vendor:
“I personally sold four thousand copies in no time at all. It’s like a nuclear explosion. People really want to know about their Tsar and his family.”
Grass roots pro-Tsarist and monarchist organizations have sprung up in many cities.
A public opinion poll conducted in 1990 found that three out of four Soviet citizens surveyed regard the killing of the Tsar and his family as a despicable crime.38 Many Russian Orthodox believers regard Nicholas as a martyr. The independent “Orthodox Church Abroad” canonized the imperial family in 1981, and the Moscow-based Russian Orthodox Church has been under popular pressure to take the same step, in spite of its long-standing reluctance to touch this official taboo. The Russian Orthodox Archbishop of Ekaterinburg announced plans in 1990 to build a grand church at the site of the killings.
“The people loved Emperor Nicholas,” he said. “His memory lives with the people, not as a saint but as someone executed without court verdict, unjustly, as a sufferer for his faith and for orthodoxy.”39
On the 75th anniversary of the massacre (in July 1993), Russians recalled the life, death and legacy of their last Emperor. In Ekaterinburg, where a large white cross festooned with flowers now marks the spot where the family was killed, mourners wept as hymns were sung and prayers were said for the victims.40
Reflecting both popular sentiment and new social-political realities, the white, blue and red horizontal tricolor flag of Tsarist Russia was officially adopted in 1991, replacing the red Soviet banner. And in 1993, the imperial two-headed eagle was restored as the nation’s official emblem, replacing the Soviet hammer and sickle. Cities that had been re-named to honor Communist figures — such as Leningrad, Kuibyshev, Frunze, Kalinin, and Gorky — have re-acquired their Tsarist-era names. Ekaterinburg, which had been named Sverdlovsk by the Soviets in 1924 in honor of the Soviet-Jewish chief, in September 1991 restored its pre-Communist name, which honors Empress Catherine I.
SYMBOLIC MEANING
In view of the millions that would be put to death by the Soviet rulers in the years to follow, the murder of the Romanov family might not seem of extraordinary importance. And yet, the event has deep symbolic meaning.
In the apt words of Harvard University historian Richard Pipes:41
The manner in which the massacre was prepared and carried out, at first denied and then justified, has something uniquely odious about it, something that radically distinguishes it from previous acts of regicide and brands it as a prelude to twentieth-century mass murder.
Another historian, Ivor Benson, characterized the killing of the Romanov family as symbolic of the tragic fate of Russia and, indeed, of the entire West, in this century of unprecedented agony and conflict.
The murder of the Tsar and his family is all the more deplorable because, whatever his failings as a monarch, Nicholas II was, by all accounts, a personally decent, generous, humane and honorable man.
THE MASSACRE’S PLACE IN HISTORY
The mass slaughter and chaos of the First World War, and the revolutionary upheavals that swept Europe in 1917-1918, brought an end not only to the ancient Romanov dynasty in Russia, but to an entire continental social order. Swept away as well was the Hohenzollern dynasty in Germany, with its stable constitutional monarchy, and the ancient Habsburg dynasty of Austria-Hungary with its multinational central European empire. Europe’s leading states shared not only the same Christian and Western cultural foundations, but most of the continent’s reigning monarchs were related by blood. England’s King George was, through his mother, a first cousin of Tsar Nicholas, and, through his father, a first cousin of Empress Alexandra. Germany’s Kaiser Wilhelm was a first cousin of the German-born Alexandra, and a distant cousin of Nicholas.
More than was the case with the monarchies of Western Europe, Russia’s Tsar personally symbolized his land and nation. Thus, the murder of the last emperor of a dynasty that had ruled Russia for three centuries not only symbolically presaged the Jewish Communist mass slaughter that would claim so many Russian lives in the decades that followed, but was symbolic of the Jewish Communist effort to kill the soul and spirit of Russia itself.
Notes
1.      Edvard Radzinksy, The Last Tsar (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 327, 344-346.; Bill Keller, “Cult of the Last Czar,” The New York Times, Nov. 21, 1990.
2.      From an April 1935 entry in “Trotsky’s Diary in Exile.” Quoted in: Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1990), pp. 770, 787.; Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra (New York: 1976), pp. 496-497.; E. Radzinksy, The Last Tsar (New York: Doubleday, 1992), pp. 325-326.; Ronald W. Clark, Lenin (New York: 1988), pp. 349-350.
3.      On Wilton and his career in Russia, see: Phillip Knightley, The First Casualty (Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1976), pp. 141-142, 144-146, 151-152, 159, 162, 169, and, Anthony Summers and Tom Mangold, The File on the Tsar(New York: Harper and Row, 1976), pp. 102-104, 176.
4.      AP dispatch from Moscow, Toronto Star, Sept. 26, 1991, p. A2.; Similarly, a 1992 survey found that one-fourth of people in the republics of Belarus (White Russia) and Uzbekistan favored deporting all Jews to a special Jewish region in Russian Siberia. “Survey Finds Anti-Semitism on Rise in Ex-Soviet Lands,” Los Angeles Times, June 12, 1992, p. A4.
5.      At the turn of the century, Jews made up 4.2 percent of the population of the Russian Empire. Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York: 1990), p. 55 (fn.).
By comparison, in the United States today, Jews make up less than three percent of the total population (according to the most authoritative estimates).
6.      See individual entries in: H. Shukman, ed., The Blackwell Encyclopedia of the Russian Revolution (Oxford: 1988), and in: G. Wigoder, ed., Dictionary of Jewish Biography (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991).
The prominent Jewish role in Russia’s pre-1914 revolutionary underground, and in the early Soviet regime, is likewise confirmed in: Stanley Rothman and S. Robert Lichter, Roots of Radicalism (New York: Oxford, 1982), pp. 92-94.
In 1918, the Bolshevik Party’s Central Committee had 15 members. German scholar Herman Fehst — citing published Soviet records — reported in his useful 1934 study that of six of these 15 were Jews. Herman Fehst, Bolschewismus und Judentum: Das jüdische Element in der Führerschaft des Bolschewismus (Berlin: 1934), pp. 68-72.; Robert Wilton, though, reported that in 1918 the Central Committee of the Bolshevik party had twelve members, of whom nine were of Jewish origin and three were of Russian ancestry. R. Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs (IHR, 1993), p. 185.
7.      After years of official suppression, this fact was acknowledged in 1991 in the Moscow weekly Ogonyok. See: Jewish Chronicle (London), July 16, 1991.; See also: Letter by L. Horwitz in The New York Times, Aug. 5, 1992, which cites information from the Russian journal “Native Land Archives.”; “Lenin’s Lineage?”‘Jewish,’ Claims Moscow News,” Forward (New York City), Feb. 28, 1992, pp. 1, 3.; M. Checinski, Jerusalem Post (weekly international edition), Jan. 26, 1991, p. 9.
8.      Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York: Knopf, 1990), p. 352.
9.      Harrison E. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia’s Revolutions, 1905-1917 (Doubleday, 1978), p. 475.; William H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution (Princeton Univ. Press, 1987), vol. 1, pp. 291-292.; Herman Fehst, Bolschewismus und Judentum: Das jüdische Element in der Führerschaft des Bolschewismus (Berlin: 1934), pp. 42-43.; P. N. Pospelov, ed., Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: A Biography (Moscow: Progress, 1966), pp. 318-319.
This meeting was held on October 10 (old style, Julian calendar), and on October 23 (new style). The six Jews who took part were: Uritsky, Trotsky, Kamenev, Zinoviev, Sverdlov and Soklonikov.
The Bolsheviks seized power in Petersburg on October 25 (old style) — hence the reference to the “Great October Revolution” — which is November 7 (new style).
10.  William H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution (1987), vol. 1, p. 292.; H. E. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia’s Revolutions, 1905-1917 (1978), p. 475.
11.  W. H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, vol. 1, pp. 274, 299, 302, 306.; Alan Moorehead, The Russian Revolution (New York: 1965), pp. 235, 238, 242, 243, 245.; H. Fehst, Bolschewismus und Judentum (Berlin: 1934), pp. 44, 45.
12.  H. E. Salisbury, Black Night, White Snow: Russia’s Revolutions, 1905-1917 (1978), p. 479-480.; Dmitri Volkogonov, Stalin: Triumph and Tragedy (New York: Grove Weidenfeld, 1991), pp. 27-28, 32.; P. N. Pospelov, ed., Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: A Biography (Moscow: Progress, 1966), pp. 319-320.
13.  “Zionism versus Bolshevism: A struggle for the soul of the Jewish people,” Illustrated Sunday Herald (London), February 8, 1920. Facsimile reprint in: William Grimstad, The Six Million Reconsidered (1979), p. 124. (At the time this essay was published, Churchill was serving as minister of war and air.)
14.  David R. Francis, Russia from the American Embassy (New York: 1921), p. 214.
15.  Foreign Relations of the United States — 1918 — Russia, Vol. 1 (Washington, DC: 1931), pp. 678-679.
16.  American Hebrew (New York), Sept. 1920. Quoted in: Nathan Glazer and Daniel Patrick Moynihan, Beyond the Melting Pot (Cambridge, Mass.: 1963), p. 268.
17.  C. Jacobson, “Jews in the USSR” in: American Review on the Soviet Union, August 1945, p. 52.; Avtandil Rukhadze, Jews in the USSR: Figures, Facts, Comment (Moscow: Novosti, 1978), pp. 10-11.
18.  T. Emmons and B. M. Patenaude, eds., War, Revolution and Peace in Russia: The Passages of Frank Golder, 1913-1927 (Stanford: Hoover Institution, 1992), pp. 320, 139, 317.
19.  Louis Rapoport, Stalin’s War Against the Jews (New York: Free Press, 1990), pp. 30, 31, 37. See also pp. 43, 44, 45, 49, 50.
20.  Quoted in: Salo Baron, The Russian Jews Under Tsars and Soviets (New York: 1976), pp. 170, 392 (n. 4).
21.  The Atlantic, Sept. 1991, p. 14.;
In 1919, three-quarters of the Cheka staff in Kiev were Jews, who were careful to spare fellow Jews. By order, the Cheka took few Jewish hostages. R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 824.; Israeli historian Louis Rapoport also confirms the dominant role played by Jews in the Soviet secret police throughout the 1920s and 1930s. L. Rapoport, Stalin’s War Against the Jews (New York: 1990), pp. 30-31, 43-45, 49-50.
22.  E. Radzinsky, The Last Tsar (1992), pp. 244, 303-304.; Bill Keller, “Cult of the Last Czar,” The New York Times, Nov. 21, 1990.; See also: W. H. Chamberlin, The Russian Revolution, vol. 2, p. 90.
23.  Quoted in: The New Republic, Feb. 5, 1990, pp. 30 ff.; Because of the alleged anti-Semitism of Russophobia, in July 1992 Shafarevich was asked by the National Academy of Sciences (Washington, DC) to resign as an associate member of that prestigious body.
24.  R. Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs (1993), p. 148.
25.  Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 787.; Robert K. Massie, Nicholas and Alexandra (New York: 1976), pp. 496-497.
26.  An article in a 1907 issue of the respected American journal National Geographic reported on the revolutionary situation brewing in Russia in the years before the First World War: ” The revolutionary leaders nearly all belong to the Jewish race, and the most effective revolutionary agency is the Jewish Bund ” W. E. Curtis, “The Revolution in Russia,” The National Geographic Magazine, May 1907, pp. 313-314.
Piotr Stolypin, probably imperial Russia’s greatest statesman, was murdered in 1911 by a Jewish assassin. In 1907, Jews made up about ten percent of Bolshevik party membership. In the Menshevik party, another faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, the Jewish proportion was twice as high. R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution(1990), p. 365.; See also: R. Wilton, The Last Days of the Romanovs (1993), pp. 185-186.
27.  Martin Gilbert, Atlas of Jewish History (1977), pp. 71, 74.; In spite of the restrictive “Pale” policy, in 1897 about 315,000 Jews were living outside the Pale, most of them illegally. In 1900 more than 20,000 were living in the capital of St. Petersburg, and another 9,000 in Moscow.
28.  Sonja Margolina, Das Ende der Lügen: Russland und die Juden im 20. Jahrhundert (Berlin: 1992). Quoted in: “Ein ganz heisses Eisen angefasst,” Deutsche National-Zeitung (Munich), July 21, 1992, p. 12.
29.  Krasnaia Gazetta (“Red Gazette”), September 1, 1918. Quoted in: Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), pp. 820, 912 (n. 88).
30.  Richard Pipes, The Russian Revolution (New York: 1990), p. 820.
31.  Contrary to what a number of western historians have for years suggested, Soviet terror and the Gulag camp system did not begin with Stalin. At the end of 1920, Soviet Russia already had 84 concentration camps with approximately 50,000 prisoners. By October 1923 the number had increased to 315 camps with 70,000 inmates. R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 836.
32.  Cited by historian Robert Conquest in a review/ article in The New York Review of Books, Sept. 23, 1993, p. 27.
33.  The New York Review of Books, Sept. 23, 1993, p. 27.
34.  Review/article by Robert Conquest in The New York Review of Books, Sept. 23, 1993, p. 27.; In the “Great Terror” years of 1937-1938 alone, Conquest has calculated, approximately one million were shot by the Soviet secret police, and another two million perished in Soviet camps. R. Conquest, The Great Terror (New York: Oxford, 1990), pp. 485-486.;
Conquest has estimated that 13.5 to 14 million people perished in the collectivization (“dekulakization”) campaign and forced famine of 1929-1933. R. Conquest, The Harvest of Sorrow (New York: Oxford, 1986), pp. 301-307.
35.  Russian professor Igor Bestuzhev-Lada, writing in a 1988 issue of the Moscow weekly Nedelya, suggested that during the Stalin era alone (1935-1953), as many as 50 million people were killed, condemned to camps from which they never emerged, or lost their lives as a direct result of the brutal “dekulakization” campaign against the peasantry. “Soviets admit Stalin killed 50 million,” The Sunday Times, London, April 17, 1988.;
R. J. Rummel, a professor of political science at the University of Hawaii, has recently calculated that 61.9 million people were systematically killed by the Soviet Communist regime from 1917 to 1987. R. J. Rummel, Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1917 (Transaction, 1990).
36.  Because of his revolutionary activities, Lenin was sentenced in 1897 to three years exile in Siberia. During this period of “punishment,” he got married, wrote some 30 works, made extensive use of a well-stocked local library, subscribed to numerous foreign periodicals, kept up a voluminous correspondence with supporters across Europe, and enjoyed numerous sport hunting and ice skating excursions, while all the time receiving a state stipend. See: Ronald W. Clark, Lenin (New York: 1988), pp. 42-57.; P. N. Pospelov, ed., Vladimir Ilyich Lenin: A Biography(Moscow: Progress, 1966), pp. 55-75.
37.  R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), pp. 187-188.;
38.  The Nation, June 24, 1991, p. 838.
39.  Bill Keller, “Cult of the Last Czar,” The New York Times, Nov. 21, 1990.
40.  “Nostalgic for Nicholas, Russians Honor Their Last Czar,” Los Angeles Times, July 18, 1993.; “Ceremony marks Russian czar’s death,” Orange County Register, July 17, 1993.
41.  R. Pipes, The Russian Revolution (1990), p. 787.
SOURCE: Mark Weber

ATTENTION READERS
Due to the nature of independent content, VT cannot guarantee content validity.
We ask you to Read Our Content Policy so a clear comprehension of VT's independent non-censored media is understood and given its proper place in the world of news, opinion and media.

All content is owned by author exclusively. Expressed opinions are NOT necessarily the views of VT, other authors, affiliates, advertisers, sponsors, partners or technicians. Some content may be satirical in nature. All images within are full responsibility of author and NOT VT.

About VT - Read Full Policy Notice - Comment Policy

1 COMMENT

  1. This goes back at least to when Jesus threw the money-changers out of the Temple. They’ve never forgiven him for that, to this very day. They’ve over the centuries morphed into being the banksters. Now, they most likely aren’t even human anymore, maybe some artificial intelligence profit algorithm that has no use whatsoever for actual human beings. Everything on the planet has become monetized, from food production to health care. Hence, runaway global warming, plagues and plandemics, and finally nuclear warfare. That’s what US Christian Zionism prays for, the ultimate population reduction scheme.

Comments are closed.