Under the sort of government described by Mr. La Varre in his Legion article, large numbers of recently arrived and recently naturalized citizens and their ideological associates were infiltrated by appointment, or by civil service, into the State Department, the presidential coterie, and other sensitive spots in the government. Among those who feathered their Washington nests in this period were not only leftist East Europeans, but actual Communist converts or sell-outs to the Communist party among native Americans. The solicitude of President F. D. Roosevelt for America‘s Communists was constant, as was shown in his steady opposition to proposed curbs upon them.
Ex-Congressman Martin Dies, former Chairman of the House of Representatives Committee on Un-American Activities, bears witness in lectures (one of them heard by the author, 1950) that he was several times summoned to the White House by President Roosevelt and told with suggestions of great favors to come that he must stop annoying Communists (see Chapter IV). To the unyielding Dies, Roosevelt,s climactic argument was We need those votes! A speech (May 17, 1951) on a similar theme by Mr. Dies has been published by the American Heritage Protective Committee (601 Bedell Building, San Antonio, Texas, 25 cents). Another speech by Mr, Dies, White House Protects Communists in Government, was inserted (September 22, 1950) in the Con-
gressional Record by Congressman Harold H. Velde of Illinois.
The government was infiltrated with risks‖from the above described groups of Eastern Europeans and with contaminated native Americans, but those were not all. After the beginning of World War II, so called refugees immediately upon arrival in this country were by executive order introduced into sensitive government positions without the formality of having them wait for citizenship, and without any investigation of their reasons for leaving Europe. The way for this infiltration was paved by an executive order providing specifically that employment could not be denied on the grounds of race, creed, or national origin.
Since no form of investigation could be made by the United Stated in the distant and hostile areas from which these refugees came, and since their number contained persons sympathetic to the Soviet Union this executive order was a potential and in many instanced a realized death blow to security.
Almost as if for a double check against security, the control of security measures in the new atom projects was not entrusted to the expert F.B.I., but to the atomic officials themselves. In view of their relative inexperience in such matters and in view of the amazing executive order so favorable to alien employees, the atomic officials were probably less to blame for the theft of atomic secrets than the left-of-center administrations which appointed them. Among those admitted to a proper spot for learning atomic secrets was the celebrated alien, the British subject but not British-born Klaus Fuchs. Other atomic spies, all aliens or of alien associations, were named in Chapter II.
Next to the atomic energy employees, the United Public Workers of America offered perhaps the best opportunity for the theft of secrets vital to the U.S. defense. This union included a generous number of people of Eastern European stock or connections, among them Leonard Goldsmith and Robert Weinstein, organizers of Panama Canal workers, and both of them said to have definite Communist affiliations (Liberty, May, 1948). This union whose chief bloc of members was in Washington was later expelled (March 1, 1950) by the C.I.O. on charges of being Communist-dominated (Directory of Labor Unions in the United States, Bulletin No. 980, U.S. Dept. of Labor, 1950. 25c). However, if the U.S. Government has shown any signs of being as particular about its employee (see Tydings Committee Report, U.S. Senate, 1950) as the C.I.O. is about its members, the fact has escaped the attention of the author.
As the years passed, the infiltration of Eastern Europeans into the government had swelled to a torrent. Many of these persons, of course, were not Communists and were not sympathetic with Communist aims. As repeated elsewhere in this book, the contrary is neither stated nor implied. the author‘s purpose is simply to show that persons of Eastern European stock, or of an ideology not influential in the days of the founding and formative period of our country, have in recent years risen to many of the most strategic spots in the Roosevelt-Truman Democratic Party and thereby to positions of great and often decisive power in shaping the policy of the United States. The subject was broached by W. M. Kiplinger in a book, Washington Is Like That (Harper and Brothers, 1942). According to a Reader‘s Digest condensation (September, 1942), entitled The Facts About Jews in Washington, Jews were by 1942 conspicuously numerous in government agencies and departments concerned with money, labor, and justice. The situation stemmed from the fact that non-Jewish officials within government, acting under the direction of the President, were trying to get various agencies to employ more Jews. . .
The influence of persons of Eastern European origin, or of related origin or ideology, reached its peak (thus far) with Mr. Milton Katz at the helm of U.S. policy in Europe (to mid -1951) with Mrs. Anna Rosenberg in charge of the manpower of the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Corps; with Mr. Manly Fleischman as Administrator of the Defense Production Administration; and with Mr. Nathan P. Feinsinger (New York Times, August 30, 1951) as Chairman of the Wage Stabilization Board. Likewise, in October, 1948, when President Truman appointed a committee on religious and moral welfare and character guidance in the armed forces, he named as Chairman Frank L. Weil, of New York, a lawyer, and President of the National Jewish Welfare Board (New York Times, October 28, 1948).
It is interesting to note the prominence of persons of Khazar or similar background or association in the Socialist minority government of the United Kingdom, and in French polities, beginning with Leon Blum. Among them are the Rt. Hon. Emanuel Shinwell and Minister Jules Moch archfoe of Marshal Petain who have recently held defense portfolios in the British and French cabinets respectively. Just as in America the non-Christian characteristically joins the Democratic Party, so in Britain he joins the leftist Labor Party. Thus the British house of Commons, sitting in the summer of 1951, had 21 Jews among its Labor members and none among its Conservative members. Whatever his racial antecedents, Mr. Clement Attlee, long leader of the British Labor Party and Socialist Prime Minister (1945-1951) has for many years received international notoriety as a Communist sympathizer. For instance, he visited and praised the English company in the international Communist force in the Spanish Civil War (see photograph and facsimile in The International Brigades, Spanish Office of Information, Madrid, 1948, p. 134).
A few persons of Eastern European origin or background or associated with persons of such background in positions high or strategic, or both, have already been named by the author, and others, when their prominence demands it, will be named in the pages which follow. The author hereby assures the reader again that no reflection of any kind is intended and that he has no reason for believing that any of these people are other than true to their convictions.
First on any list of Americans of Eastern European origin should be the Vienna-born Felix Frankfurter, who in the middle twentieth century appears to have replaced the stock of the Puritans as the shining light and symbol of Harvard University. After leaving his professorship in the Harvard Law School, Dr. Frankfurter became a Supreme Court Justice and President Franklin Roosvelt‘s top-flight adviser on legal and other matters. In the formation of our national policies his influence is almost universally rated as supreme. I suppose that Felix Frankfurter . . . has more influence in Washington than any other American wrote Rev. John P. Sheerin, Editor of The Catholic World (March, 1951, p. 405), and the Chicago Tribune, owned by the Presbyterian Colonel Robert R. McCormick, has voiced a similar opinion. In fact, Mr. Justice Frankfurter is frequently referred to by those who know their way around Washington as the President of the United States. In a recent gag the question Do you want to see a new picture of the President of the United States? …is followed up by showing a likeness of Frankfurter.
Mr. Justice Frankfurter is influential not only in counsel but in furthering the appointment of favored individuals to strategic positions. The so-called Frankfurter;s boys‘ include Mr. Acheson, with whom the justice takes daily walks, weather permitting (New York Times, January 19, 1949); Alger Hiss; Lee Pressman; David Niles, long Counsellor of the Department of State; David Lilienthal, long Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission John J. McCloy, Joe Rauh, Nathan Margold; Donald Hiss, brother to Alger, and now a member of the Acheson law firm; Milton Katz; and former Secretary of War Robert Patterson, a hundred per cent Frankfurter employee (all names and quotes in this paragraph are from Drew Pearson‘s syndicated column, February 1, 1950).
A powerful government figure, the Russian-born Isador Lubin, was frequently summoned by President F.D. Roosevelt for the interpreting of statistics (send for Lube); and was subsequently a United States representative to the UN (article in New York Times, August 8, 1951). Leo Pasvolsky, Russian-born, was long a power in the Department of State, being, among other things, in charge of international organization and security affairs, 1945-1946 (Who‘s Who in America, Vol. 26, 1950-51, p. 2117). Among others very close to Roosevelt II were Samuel Rosenman, who as special counsel was said to write many of the President‘s speeches; Henry Morgenthau, Secretary of the Treasury and sponsor of the vicious Morgenthau, Plan; and Herbert Lehman, Director General (1943 to 1946) of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), most of whose funds principally derived from the U.S. were diverted to countries which were soon to become Soviet satellites as a result of the Yalta and Potsdam surrenders.
Strategic positions currently or recently held by persons of Eastern European origin, or ideological association with such people, include a number of Assistant Secretaryships to members of the Cabinet, among them incumbents in such sensitive spots as Defense, Justice (Customs and Solicitor General‘s Office) and Labor; the governorships of vital outposts such as Alaska (three miles from Russia) and the Virgin Islands (near the Panama Canal); appointments in the Executive Office of the President of the United States; positions in organizations devoted to international trade and assistance; membership on the Atomic Energy Commission; and membership, which may best be described as wholesale, in the U.S. delegation to the United Nations.
The number of persons of Eastern European origin or connection in appointive positions of strategic significance in our national government is strikingly high in proportion to the total number of such persons in America. On the contrary, in elective positions, the proportion of such persons is strikingly below their numerical proportion to the total population. The question arises; Does the high ratio of appointed persons of Eastern European origin or contacts in United States strategic positions reflect the will of the U.S. people? If not, what controlling will does it reflect?